FOUNDERS OF

GanaMan annual IReview of [public affaire

Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.C., G.C.V.O.

Colonel The Hon. James Mason

Colonel Sir Henry M. Pellatt, C.V.O., D.C.L., A.D.C.

The late Senator George A. Cox

J. W. Flavelle, Esq., LL.D.

Cawthra Mulock, Esq.

A. E. Ames, Esq. Sir Edmund Boyd Osier, M.P.

The late R. Wilson-Smith

Sir Thomas G. Shaughnessy, K.C.V.O.

A. J. Russell Snow, Esq., K.C.

D. R. Wilkie, Esq. Major J. Cooper Mason, D.S.O.

The late J. R. Bond J. Castell Hopkins, Esq., F.S.S., F.R.G.S.

THE

CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW

OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS

THE RIGHT HON. SIR EDWARD GREY, BART., K.G., M.P.

His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

THE

CANADIAN

ANNUAL REVIEW

OF

PUBLIC AFFAIRS W4

BY

CASTELL HOPKINS, F.S.S., F.RG.S

14TH YEAR OF ISSUE

ILLUSTRATED

TORONTO

KVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY LIMITED

THE i -WARD GREY,

y of State for 1'.

tf.P.

THE

CANADIAN

ANNUAL REVIEW

"

PUBLIC AFFAIRS

1914

X- '

/'/

^

/,

>:i4m

BY J. CASTELL HOPKINS, F.S.S., F.RG.S

14TH YEAR OF ISSUE

ILLUSTRATED

TORONTO

THE ANNUAL REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY LIMITED

,,,,*,,, ,v>

•~7T v--

i //' zu

J . rr i i —*

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Copyright, Canada, 1915,

by THE ANNUAL REVIEW Printed by

PUBLISHING COMPANY, MURRAY PRINTING Co., Limited LIMITED. TORONTO

This Volume

is

Inscribed By Royal Permission

to

Field Marshal, H. R. H. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT Governor-General of Canada.

Whose qualities as a Statesman, Diplomatist, Administrator,

have won him a high place in the life of the

Empire; Whose capacity and enthusiasm

as a Soldier have earned him

the military respect

and confidence of our far-flung British realm; Whose Royal and graci- ous personal qualities have stamped with popularity and affection his public work in Great Britain, Ireland, Egypt, India, South Africa and Canada.

With Sincere Respect and Loyalty,

By The Author.

THE HON. SIR GEORGE EULAS FOSTER, LL.D., D.C.L., M.P.

Minister of Trade and Commerce for Canada; Knighted by H.M. The King, 1914.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.— THE COMING OF THE WORLD-WAR

PAGE

The Historical Environment of the War in 1914 17

The Position, Ambitions and Policy of the German Empire 25

On the Way to War German Preparations and Austrian Policy 35

On the Way to War The Russian Position and Policy 48

On the Way to War The Position and Policy of France 55

On the Way to War— The Neutrality and Position of Belgium 60

On the Way to War— The Position and Policy of Great Britain 66

On the Way to War Serbia, Japan and Turkey 81

British Financial Position : Finances of Other Nations 86

II.— THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN THE WAR

Empire Unity in the War ; Imperial Policy and Action 9j

The Commonwealth of Australia in the War 97

The Dominion of New Zealand and the War 104

South Africa and the War ; Internal Troubles 107

Position, Problems and Policy of India in the War 113

Newfoundland in Peace and War During 1914 125

Ireland and the War ; Canada and the Home Rule Issue 127

III.— CANADA AND THE WORLD-WAR

V

A^anadian Opinion as to Peace and War in 1914 132 VI

Canadian Opinion as to the European War and Canada's Policy 138 •SI

Preliminary Government Action ; War Session of Parliament 143 |

The Government's War Policy ; The Premier's Speeches _. 157

War Policy and Opinions of the Liberal Leaders and Party 164

Echoes of the Naval Debate ; Talk of a General Election 172

" Canadian Military Action ; Recruiting the 1st and 2nd Contingents .... 178

s Canadian Military Action ; The 1st Contingent at Valcartier 199

Canadian Military Action ; The 1st Contingent in England 205

Canadian Military Action ; Policy and Views of the Minister of Militia. 211'-' Voluntary Contributions to War Funds ; Patriotic Organizations ; Bel- gian Relief ; Personal Gifts 222

Financial Conditions and the War ; The Hon. W. T. White's policyjTrr: 23lp '

Canadian Industries and Trade ; Policy of the Minister of Trade and Com- merce '. 247 >

Agriculture in Canada ; Increased Production Urged ; Policy of the

Minister of Agriculture .1 259

The Universities of Canada ind the War s 264 ~

Treatment of Enemy Aliens in Canada During the War 275 »

Canadian War Incidents, Opim ins, Casualties and Personalities of 1914 286 J

6 CONTENTS

IV.— CONDUCT AND CHRONOLOGY OF THE WAR

PAGE

Laws of War ; Hague Conventions ; The Declaration of London 293

The United States Government and Problems of Neutrality 301

Internal American Conditions and Public Opinion 307

Belgium and Its Position during the War in 1914. 321

Progress and Leading Events of the War during 1914 328

Brief Chronology of the War in 1914 341

Canadian Incidents of the War 345

British Empire Incidents of the War 348

Neutral Countries and Allied Interests 350

V.— PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS— ONTARIO

Government and Departmental Administration ; Death of Sir James

Whitney 353

The Legislative Session ; Government Policy and Opposition Views 368

V The Budget and Finances of 1914 ; The Workman's Compensation

Measure 386

The Hydro-Electric Commission ; Sir Adam Beck's Work 395

The Department of Education ; University of Toronto and other Interests 404

The Bi-lingual Question in Ontario during 1914 418

The Provincial Elections ; Record of the Whitney Government 428

N. W. Rowell's Manifesto to the Electors of Ontario— June 9th, 1914. . 437

The General Elections ; Liberal Advocacy and Platform 440

Result of the Elections ; Return of the Whitney Government 449

Government Changes in Ontario ; The New Hearst Cabinet 455

•J Ontario and the War ; Provincial Action and Policy 459

Provincial Resources and Development ; New Ontario Conditions 463

VI.— PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS— QUEBEC

Government and Politics in Quebec ; Temperance and other Questions 470

Work of the Quebec Legislature hi 1914 481

The Mousseau Case ; Charges of Legislative Corruption 487

The Montreal Mayoralty ; Other Provincial Affairs 497

/Educational and Religious Conditions in Quebec 503

-"•^The War Attitude of Quebec ; Opinions of Mr. Bourassa 510

General Position and Progress in Quebec 517

Quebec Incidents in 1914 520

VII.— MARITIME PROVINCE AFFAIRS

Government and Politics in Nova Scotia 522

The Nova Scotia Legislature in 1914 531

Education and General Development ; The Province and the WarYT. . . . 539

Government and Politics in New Brunswick during 1914 546

The Legislative Session ; The Grand Valley Railway 552

Charges Against Mr. Flemming ; The Southamptc i Railway 556

Education and General Development ; New Bru ' ;vick and the War. .%/'. 563

Politics and Development in P. E. Island ; Th« Fox-Farming Industry 567

CONTENTS 7

VIII.— PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS IN MANITOBA.

PAGE

The Roblin Government ; Administration and Politics 572

The 1914 Session of the Manitoba Legislature 579

The Provincial Elections Liberal Convention and Policy 588

Provincial Elections Manifesto of T. C. Norris 591

Provincial Elections The Educational Problem 592

Provincial Elections The Temperance Issue 596

Provincial Elections Issues, Incidents and Result 599

/Manitoba and the War ; Special Session of the Legislature 608

Education in Manitoba ; General Development 612

Manitoba Incidents of 1914 . . 616

IX.— SASKATCHEWAN PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS

The Scott Government in 1914; Administration and Politics 617

^/WsiT Problems of Saskatchewan; Legislative Session 629

Agricultural Conditions, Policy and Organization; Co-operative Move- ments 637

Prohibition and Education in Saskatchewan 642

General Development and Provincial Incidents of 1914 647

X.— PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS IN ALBERTA

The Sifton Government and Political Affairs 650

N/The Legislature and the War; Provincial Action and Conditions 659

Education in Alberta; the Prohibition Movement 665

Alberta Development and the Oil Discoveries 670

Alberta Incidents and Miscellaneous Affairs 678

XL— PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

The McBride Government; Provincial Affairs and Conditions 680

The 1914 Session of the Legislature 692

Resources and Development of British Columbia 697

Provincial Education; British Columbia and the War.V. 700

British Columbia Incidents of the Year 706

Incidents and Conditions in the Yukon 707

XII.— INTER-PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS

Joint Interests of Various Provinces 709

University and College Appointments of the Year 717

University Honourary Degrees 718

Canadian Rhodes Scholars 719

Municipal Questions and Organizations; Town Planning and Housing. . 719

XIII.— TRANSPORTATION INTERESTS

The Canadian Railway Situation in 1914 v; ;ti ! .'. ?. 'i .' '. . 727

The Canadian Pacific Railway in ^)14 730

8 CONTENTS

PAGE

C.P.R. Incidents of the Year 73'

The Grand Trunk, the G.T.P. and Transcontinental Railways 7?

The Canadian Northern Railway System in 1914 7'

Miscellaneous Railway Incidents of the Year 7'

XIV.— DOMINION PUBLIC AFFAIRS

H.R.H., The Governor General in 1914 741

The Borden Government during the Year 742

The First Parliamentary Session of 1914 751

Government Commissions of the Year 754

The Canadian Club Movement during 1914 755

Public Incidents and Interests 760

XV —LITERATURE, JOURNALISM AND ART

Review of the chief Canadian Books of the Year 763

Incidents in Literature, Journalism and Art 769

List of Canadian Books; Books about Canada; Important Empire and

War Books 12

XVI.— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL INTERESTS 771

XVII.— MILITIA APPOINTMENTS OF THE YEAR 778

XVIIL— EMPIRE AND UNITED STATES INCIDENTS 779

XIX.— CANADIAN OBITUARY IN 1914 783

INDEX OF NAMES , 788

INDEX OF AFFAIRS 800

MISCELLANEOUS DATA

MEMOIR OF LORD STRATHCONA 787

OFFICERS AND STAFF OF IST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 201, 215

IMPORTANT EMPIRE APPOINTMENTS OF THE YEAR 781

THE NEW MANITOBA LEGISLATURE 606-7

THE NEW ONTARIO LEGISLATURE 450-2

PRESIDENTS OF AMATEUR ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS 761

PRESIDENTS OF CANADIAN MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS 761

APPOINTMENTS TO THE CANADIAN BENCH 762

ADDRESSES TO CANADIAN CLUBS IN 1914 757-9

OFFICIALS OF CANADIAN CLUBS IN 1914 756

CONTRIBUTORS TO CANADIAN PATRIOTIC FUND 226-7

BANK, INSURANCE, FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL

APPOINTMENTS 774-5

BANK BRANCHES OPENED AND CLOSED IN 1914 775-7

BANK STATISTICS AND APPOINTMENTS.. . 773-5

CONTENTS 9

SUPPLEMENT

PAGE

ADDRESSES AND REPORTS OF THE BANK OF MONTREAL. .. 3

ADDRESSES AND REPORTS OF THE CANADIAN BANK OF

COMMERCE 14

ADDRESSES AND REPORTS OF THE ROYAL BANK OF CANADA. 29

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUN LIFE OF CANADA 40

FIVE YEARS' RECORD OF THE CANADA LIFE ASSURANCE

COMPANY 44

RECORD OF THE MONTREAL STAR IN 1914. . . 47

ADVERTISEMENTS

THE CONFEDERATION LIFE ASSOCIATION 53

THE CANADA PERMANENT MORTGAGE CORPORATION 54

A. E. AMES & COMPANY, TORONTO 55

THE MERCHANTS BANK OF CANADA 54

LONDON GUARANTEE AND ACCIDENT COMPANY, LTD 55

ONTARIO— CANADA'S PREMIER PROVINCE 56

THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 57

THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY. 58

THE GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY SYSTEM 59

THE HOME BANK OF CANADA 60

THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW. . 60

ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE THE RT. HON. SIB EDWARD GREY, BART., K.G. British Secretary of

State for Foreign Affairs Frontispiece

THE HON. GEORGE EULAS FOSTER, M.P. Canadian Minister of Trade

and Commerce 8

MAJOR-GENERAL SAM. HUGHES, M.P. Canadian Minister of Militia 16

THE CATHEDRAL OF RHEIMS, FRANCE 56

THE KAISER AND THE KING OF THE BELGIANS (Punch Cartoon) 64

THE HON. EDWARD DAVIS MILLEN Australian Minister of Defence in

the Cook Government 98

THE HON. GEORGE FOSTER PEARCE Australian Minister of Defence in

the Fisher Government 98

GENERAL, THE RT. HON. Louis BOTHA, M.P. Prime Minister of South

Africa 108

GENERAL ,THE HON. JAN CHRISTIAN SMUTS, M.P. Minister of Defence in

South Africa 108

MAJOR-GEN. His HIGHNESS THE MAHARAJA OF GWALIOR 114

COLONEL, His HIGHNESS THE MAHARAJA OF BIKANER 114

His HIGHNESS, MOHAMMED AGA KHAN 114

His HIGHNESS, THE NIZAM OF HYDERABAD 114

BRIG.-GENERAL W. T. BRIDGED, C.M.G. Commanding Australian Con- tingent 138

MAJ.-GENERAL SIR ALEX. J. GODLEY Commanding New Zealand Con- tingent 138

LIEUT.-GEN. SIR JAMES WILLCOCKS Commanding Indian Contingent . . 138

COLONEL M. S. MERCER Commanding 1st Infantry Brigade, Canada. . . 138 MAJOR-GENERAL E. A. H. ALDERSON, C.B. Commanding Canadian

Contingent 160

MAJOR-GENERAL D. A. MACDONALD, C.M.G. , i.s.o 160

MAJOR-GENERAL S. B. STEELE, C.B., M.V.O 182

MAJOR-GENERAL F. L. LESSARD, C.B 182

CANADIAN OFFICERS WITH THE EMPIRE'S FORCES

LIEUT. BERTRAM NOEL DENSION Killed in Action, 1914 206

CAPT. EDWARD D. CARR-HARRIS— Killed in Action, 1914 206

LIEUT.-COMMANDER C. PniLLipPS-WoLLEY Killed in Action, 1914 206

LIEUT. C. GORDON MACKENZIE Killed in Action 1914 206

LIEUT.-COLONEL FRANK S. MEiGHEN 1st Canadian Contingent 226

LiEUT.-CoLONEL J. L. McAviTY 2nd Canadian Contingent 226

LIEUT.-COLONEL JOHN A. GUNN 2nd Canadian Contingent 226

LIEUT.-COLONEL J. T. FOTHERINGHAM, M.D. 2nd Canadian Contingent . . 226

CAPT. W. L. ROBLIN 2nd Canadian Contingent 256

MA^OR H. C. S. ELLIOT, M.D.— 1st Canadian Contingent : 256

CAPT. J. R. INNES HOPKINS 1st Canadian Contingent ' 256

ILLUSTRATIONS 11

PAGE

LiEUT.-CoLONEL GEORGE N. CORY, D.s.o. Northamptonshire Regiment. 256

LIEUT. REGINALD HIBBEKT TUPPEB 1st Canadian Contingent 292

CORPORAL VICTOR GORDON TUPPER 1st Canadian Contingent 292

LIEUT. TRAVERS WILLIAMS-TAYLOR 1st Canadian Contingent . . 292

LIEUT. WINFIELD B. SIFTON 1st Canadian Contingent 292

THE INTERIOR OF ST. PIERRE CATHEDRAL, LOUVAIN, BELGIUM 322

BRIG.-GENERAL H. C. NANTON 336

COLONEL EUGENE FISET, D.S.O. , M.D. Deputy Minister of Milita for

Canada 336

THE HON. WM. HOWARD HEARST, K.C., M.L.A. Appointed Prime Minister

of Ontario 352

SIR J. A. M. AIKINS, K.C., M.P.— Knighted by H.M. The King 382

SIR THOMAS GEORGE RODDICK LL.D., M.D. Knighted by H.M. The King 382 JOHN AUSTIN WORRELL, K.C., D.C.L. Appointed Chancellor of Trinity

University, 1914 414

GEORGE J. BURY— Appointed Vice-President of the C.P.R 414

COLONEL, THE HON. JOHN S. HENDRIE, c.v.o., M.L.A. Appointed Lieut.-

Governor of Ontario 456

THE HON. THOMAS W. McGARRY, K.C., M.L.A. Appointed Provincial

Treasurer of Ontario 456

LiEUT.-CoL., THE HON. J. B. M. BAXTER, K.C., M.L.A. Appointed

Attorney-General of New Brunswick 482

THE HON. WALTER G. MITCHELL, K.C.— Appointed Provincial Treasurer

of Quebec 482

THE MOST REV'D. Louis N. B^GIN, D.D., F.R.S.C. Created a Cardinal by

His Holiness the Pope 502

THE REV. DR. E. E. BRAITHWAITE Appointed President of the Western

University 502

THE HON. WALTER B. DICKSON, M.L.A. Elected Speaker of the New

Brunswick Legislature 534

LIEUT.-COL. C. FREDERICK HAMILTON Appointed Deputy Censor in the

Militia Deaprtment 534

THE C.P.R. HOTEL PALLISER AT CALGARY 562

T. C. NORRIS, M.L.A. Liberal Leader in Manitoba 580

FRANK S. BARNARD, EX.-M.P. Appointed Lieut .-Governor of British

Columbia 580

MOUNT ROBSON Highest peak in the Rocky Mountains 588

THE HON. GEORGE LANGLEY, M.L.A. Minister of Municipal Affairs for

Saskatchewan 620

THE HON. W. R. MOTHERWELL, M.L.A. Minister of Agriculture for

Saskatchewan 620

EDWARD HAY Appointed General Manager Imperial Bank of Canada . . 648

J. P. BELL Appointed General Manager Bank of Hamilton 648

THE ARTS BUILDING OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA, EDMONTON Under

construction in 1914 666

SIR F. WILLIAMS-TAYLOR General Manager of the Bank of Montreal... . SuppL HERBERT COPLIN Cox Appointed President Canada Life Assurance Co. Suppt.

\

CANADIAN AND OTHER BOOKS OF 1914

HISTORY, POLITICS AND BIOGRAPHY

An Economic History of Russia. . Professor James Mavor Toronto: Dent & Sons.

Manual of French Literature and

History Prof. P. J. Marichal Toronto: Dent & Sons.

The Fall of Canada: A Chapter in

the Seven Years War Prof. George M. Wrong. . . . Toronto: Oxford University

Press.

McCaul, Croft, Forneri John King, K.C Toronto: Macmillan.

j^~ Canadian Essays and Addresses. . Principal W. Peterson, C.M.Q. London: Longmans.

Canadian Addresses Hon. George E. Foster Toronto: Bell & Cockburn.

Etoffe Du Pays , Florence M. Simms Toronto: Mussons.

The Federal Government v Sir Joseph Pope, K.C.M.Q Toronto: Glasgow-Brook.

Capital Investments in Canada. . Fred. W. Field Toronto: Monetary Times.

Life and Times of Lord Strathcona W. T. R. Preston Toronto: McClelland.

The Life of a Little College and

Other Papers Prof. Arch. MacMechan . . . Halifax: T. C. Allen & Co.

THE CHHONICLES OF CANADA:

The Dawn of Canadian History Prof. Stephen Leacock Toronto: Glasgow.

The Mariner of St. Malo Prof. Stephen Leacock Toronto: Glasgow.

The Seigneurs of Old Canada. . . William Bennett Munro. . . . Toronto: Glasgow.

The Great Intendant Hon. Thomas Chapais Toronto: Glasgow.

The Passing of New France Lieut.-Col. William Wood. . Toronto: Glasgow.

The Winning of Canada Lieut.-Col. William Wood .. Toronto: Glasgow.

The War Chief of the Six

Nations Louis Aubrey Wood Toronto: Glasgow.

The Adventurers of England on

Hudson Bay Agnes C. Laut Toronto: Glasgow.

Pathfinders of the Great Plains Lawrence J. Burpee Toronto: Glasgow.

Adventurers of the Far North. . . Prof. Stephen Leacock Toronto : Glasgow.

The United Empire Loyalists. . W. Stewart Wallace Toronto: Glasgow.

All Afloat Lieut.-Col. William Wood. . Toronto: Glasgow.

The New Slavery H. Percy Scott, M.A Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Recollections and Records of To- ronto of Old W. H. Pearson Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Canada and the British Immi- grant Emily P. Weaver London: Tract Society

Stories of the British Empire Agnes Maule Machar Toronto: Wm. Briggs,

The Company of Adventurers. . . . Isaac Cowie Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Political Reminiscences of the Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Tupper, Bart., (Edited) W. A. Harkin London: Constable.

History of Niagara Janet Carnochan Toronto: Wm. Briggs

Recollections of Sixty Years Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Tupper Toronto: Cassell.

Georges-Etienne Cartier Studies by A. Dansereau, B.

Snlte, etc Montreal: Beauchemin.

Georges-Etienne Cartier C. E. Layergne Montreal: Langevin.

Missisquoi Historical Society .... Transactions St. Johns: Society.

Les Canadiens-francais Origenes

des Families N. E. Dionne Quebec: Garneau.

Ontario High School History of

Canada Prof. W. L. Grant Toronto: Eaton Co.

Histoire du Canada Par les Freres des Ecoles

Chretiennes Montreal: Privately Printed.

Treaties and Agreements Affect- ing Canada between His Majes- ty and the United States Ottawa: King's Printer.

Histoire du Protestantisme Fran- cais au Canada et Aux Elats-

Unis R. P. Duclos Montreal: Librarie Evangel-

ique.

Public Archives of Canada (Edit- ed) David W. Parker Ottawa: King's Printer.

The Valley of the Humber K, N. Lizars Toronto: William Briggs.

The Montreal Waterworks: Its

History F. Clifford Smith Montreal: City Hall.

The Senate of Canada: Its Con- stitution, Powers and Duties. . Sir George W. Ross Toronto: Copp-Clark.

Prairie Provinces of Canada ,

(Edited) Henry J. Boam, Ashley G.

Brown London: Sells Ltd.

Commercial Canada: Its Progress

and Opportunities (Edited) Fred. Cook London: Redman Book Co.

Ontario Historical Society Annual Report Toronto: Education Dept.

Documents relating to the Con- stitutional History of Canada A. G. Doughty, D. A. Mc- (Edited) Arthur Ottawa: King's Printer,

CANADIAN AND OTHER BOOKS

13

The Canadian North- West: Its

early Development and Legis-

tive Records Prof. E. H. Oliver Ottawa: King's Printer.

Ontario Archives Annual Report. (Ed.) Alex. Eraser, LL.D Toronto: King's Printer.

The Canadian Annual Review of J. Castell Hopkins, F.S.S.,

Public Affairs F.R.G.B Toronto: Annual Review Co.

Stories of Early British Columbia. W. Wymond Walkem Vancouver: News-Advertiser.

Canadian Political Science Associ- ation Proceedings Kingston : Privately Printed.

Social Service Congress, Ottawa. . Addresses, etc k . . . . Toronto: Council.

L' Eglise Au Canada depuis Mgr.

de Laval and Mgr. de Pont-

briand Abb6 Auguste Gosselin Quebec: Laflamme-Proulx.

Kent Historical Society Papers, etc Chatham: Society.

Lennox and Addington Historical

Society Papers and Records Napanee: Society.

London and Middlesex Historical

Society Transactions London: Society.

Pages de Souvenirs et d' histoire. . Abb6 J. M. Jolys Saint Pierre

Jolys: Privately Printed. Report of Provincial Archives:

British Columbia E. O. S. Scholefield Victoria: King's Printer.

Mfimoires et Reminiscences du

College Joliette A. C. Dugas Montreal: Arbour-Dupont.

Questions d'hier et d' Augourd

'hier Alphonse Gagnon Quebec: J. P. Garneau.

Annuaire Statistique Quebec Province Quebec: Bureau of Statis-

*-•* tics.

Landmarks of Toronto (6th

Series) J. Ross Robertson Toronto: Robertson.

Sixty Years of Progress in British

Columbia . E. O. S. Scholefield Victoria: Privately Printed.

NOVELS

The New Dawn Agnes C. Laut Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

You Never Know Your Luck Sir Gilbert Parker Toronto: Bell & Cockburn.

Behind the Wicket J. R. Buschlen Toronto: William Briggs.

The Patrol of the Sun Dance. . . . Rev. Dr. C. W. Gordon Toronto: Westminster Co.

(Ralph Connor)

The Bail Jumper R. J. C. Stead London: Fisher Unwin.

The Whalers -. J. J. Bell Toronto: Hodder Stoughton

The Sergeant of Fort Toronto. . . . Geo. F. Millner Toronto : Copp-Clark.

Arcadian Adventures with the

Idle Rich Stephen Leacock Toronto: S. B. Gundy.

The Pretender Robert W. Service Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

The Call of the East Rev. Thurlow Fraser Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

The Bird-Store Man Norman Duncan Toronto: S. B. Gundy.

Blantyre-Alien Alan Sullivan Toronto: Dent & Sons.

Wesblock: The Autobiography of

an Automaton H. Macdonald Walters Toronto: Dent <fe Sons.

Ringfield Mrs. S. F. Harrison Toronto: Musson.

Blue Water F. W. Wallace Toronto: Musson.

An Irishman's Luck E. A. Wharton Gill Toronto: Musson.

The Sealed Valley Hulbert Footner Toronto: Musson.

His Royal Happiness Mrs. Everard Cotes Toronto: Hodder.

Seeds of Pine Mrs. Arthur Murphy Toronto: Hodder.

POEMS

In the Heart of the Meadow Thomas O'Hagan, Litt. D. . Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Promotion Ballads H. M. Nelson Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Reveries: Verse John J. Gurnett London: Theosophical

Society.

Grey Knitting Katharine Hale Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

(Mrs. J. W. Garvin)

Open Waters Arthur J. Stringer New York: John Lane.

At The Shrine George H. Clarke Cincinnatti: Stewart Kidd.

Maple Leaves and Snow Flakes. . Rose Ferguson Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Wayside Weeds Prof. W. H. Ellis Toronto: Dent & Sons.

Sagas of Vaster Britain Wilfrid Campbell Toronto: Musson.

In that New World which is the

Old G. A. Mackenzie Toronto: Musson.

Poems Rev. James B. Dollard Toronto: Church Extension.

White Lauristine: Poems Garrioch Gunn Toronto: Macmillan.

Mary Magdalen and Other Poems Laura E. McCully Toronto: Macmillan.

New Canadian Poems Warneford Moffatt Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Oxford Book of Canadian Verse

(Selected) Wilfrid Campbell London: Oxford Press.

Love and the Universe Albert D. Watson Toronto: Macmillan.

England Overseas Lloyd Roberts . . .

14

CANADIAN AND OTHER BOOKS

LEGAL, RELIGIOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS

The Relations of the Christian

Churches Rev. R. Campbell, D.D Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Edmonton Illustrated 1914 Edmonton: Esdale Press.

Canadian Railway Digest 1902-14 Toronto: Canada Law Book

The House Fly: Its Structure and Habits Gordon F. Hewitt Toronto: Dent & Sons.

The Sovereignty of Character Albert D. Watson Toronto: Macmillan.

Royal Society of Canada Transactions Ottawa: Government

Bureau.

Canadian Mining Institute Transactions Montreal: Privately printed.

Leading Cases in Canadian Con- stitutional Law A. H. F. Lefroy, K.C Toronto: Caswell.

Banks and Banking (4th Edition) Hon. J. J. Maclaren Toronto: Carswell.

The Canadian Bank of Com- merce, Annual Reports, 1908- 1914 Toronto: Privately printed.

A Constructive Basis for Theo- logy Prof. James Ten Broeke Toronto: Macmillan.

Words and Terms Judicially De- fined Judge Widdifield Toronto: Carswell.

Ontario County Court Manual

(3rd Ed.) M. J. Gorman, K.C Toronto: Carswell.

Offences against the Liquor Li- cense Act (2nd Edition) G. J. Jelf Toronto: Carswell.

Law of Executors and Adminis- trators (3rd Ed.) R. E. Kingsford Toronto: Carswell.

The World Problem Rev. Dr. C. S. Eby Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Annotations to Revised Statutes

of Ontario F. C. Snider, K.C Toronto: Carswell.

Manitoba King's Bench Act An- notated E. K. Williams Toronto: Carswell.

World-Power: The Empire of

Christ Rev. John MacNeill Toronto: McClelland.

Canadian Nights Albert Hickman Toronto: McClelland.

Among the Canadian Alps Lawrence J. Burpee London: Lane.

Ontario Archaelogical Report

(Edited) Dr. Rowland B. Orr Toronto: King's Printer.

The World Problem Rev. C. 8. Eby Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

REFERENCE

The Canadian Annual Review of J. Castell Hopkins, F.B.S.,

Public Affairs P.K.G.S Toronto: Annual Review Co.

Heaton's Annual (Edited) Ernest Heaton Toronto: Heaton.

The Canadian Almanac (Edited). . Arnold W. Thomas Toronto: Copp-Clark.

The Canadian Parliamentary

Guide Major E. J. Chambers Ottawa: E. J. Chambers.

The Year Book of British Colum- bia 1911-14 R. E. Gosnell Victoria: King's Printer.

Imperial Year Book for the Do- minion of Canada (Edited) A. E. Southall Montreal: Year Book.

PAMPHLETS AND MONOGRAPHS

The Defence of Canada Christopher West Toronto: Dent & Sons.

Notes on History of the District

of Niagara E. A. Cruikshank Niagara: Historical Society

Treaties Affecting the North Paci- fic Coast F. C. Wade, K.C Vancouver: Saturday Sunset.

The First Circumnavigation of

Vancouver's Island C. F. Newcombe Victoria: King's Printer.

Blazing the Trail through the

Rockies Noel Robinson Vancouver: News Advertiser.

The Manor House of Lacolle W. D. Lighthall, K.C Montreal: Marchand.

The Jury System in Ontario Hon. W. R. Riddell New York: Bar Association.

Address before the American Bar

Association Sir Charles Fitzpatrick Washing- Government

ton: Printers.

The War Spirit of Germany Prof. Geo. M. Wrong Toronto: Oxford Press.

Experiments with Single Tax in

Western Canada F. C. Wade, K.C Vancouver: Privately Printed.

Empire Day, 1914 In Manitoba Winnipeg: Education Dept.

BOOKS ABOUT CANADA NOT WRITTEN BY CANADIANS

Life of Admiral Sir Charles

Saunders Edward Salmon London: Pitman.

The Land of Open Doors: Letters

from Western Canada J. Burgon Bickersteth Toronto: Musson.

Lands Forlorn: Story of an Ex- pedition to Hearne's Copper- mine River G. M. Douglas New York: Putnam.

CANADIAN AND OTHER BOOKS

15

Mountaineering and Exploration

in the Selkirks Howard Palmer New York: Putnam.

History of Canadian Wealth Vol.1 Gustavus Myers Chicago: C. H. Kerr.

Alberta and the Others Madge J. Smith Toronto: Sidgwick.

A Green Englishman and Other

Stories of Canada S. MacNaughton London: Smith-Elder.

Wheat and Woman G. Binnie Clark London: Heinemann.

Rural Schools in Canada; Organ- ization, Administration and

Supervision James C. Miller New YorkiColumbus Univer- sity.

IMPORTANT BOOKS ABOUT THE EMPIRE

Egypt in Transition Sidney Low Toronto: Macmillan.

Life of Admiral, Sir Harry Rawson Lieut. Geoffrey Rawson .... London: Ed. Arnold.

Problems of Empire Viscount Hythe, D.C.L London: Longmans.

Notes on Politics and History. . . . Viscount Morley Toronto: Macmillan.

History of Emigration from the

United Kingdom to North

America. . .' Stanley C. Johnson London: Routledge.

With Mr. Chamberlain in the

United States and Canada Sir Willoughby May cock . . . Toronto: Bell-Cockburn.

Liie of Joseph Chamberlain Viscount Milner and Others . London: Nelson.

Recollections of Bench and Bar .. Viscount Alverstone London: Ed. Arnold.

The Life of John Bright G. M. Trevelyan London: Constable.

The War Office : Past and Present . Captain Owen Wheeler London : Methuen.

The Life of Lord Roberts Sir George Forrest London: Cassell.

Memoirs of Admiral Lord Charles

Beresf ord London : Methuen.

The British Empire and the

United States Prof. W. A. Dunning Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of

Beaconsfield George Earle Buckle London: Murray.

The Indian Year Book Stanley Reed, LL.D London: Times of India.

Federal Handbook of Australia Melbourne: Government

Printer.

Official Year Book of Australia (Ed.) G. H. Knibbs, C.M.O. . Melbourne: McCarron.

The Life of Sir Frederick Weld .... Alice, Lady Lo vat London: Murray.

IMPORTANT BOOKS ON THE WAR OR ITS PROBLEMS

German Sea-Power: Its Rise,

Progress and Economic Basis.. . Archibald Hurd London: Murray.

Why We are at War! Oxford Faculty of Modern

History Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Our Future A Word of Warning

to the German Nation General F. von Bernhardi.. . London: Wm. Dawson.

Pan-Germanism Roland G. Usher .'.... Toronto: Copp Clark.

The Nation in Arms F.M. Baron Von der Goltz.. London: Hodder.

The Origins of the War J. Holland Rose London: P. S. King.

What is Wrong with Germany. . . W. H. Dawson London: P. S. King.

The German War Book (Edited). Prof. J. H. Morgan London: P. S. King.

The War and America Prof. Hugo MQnsterberg. . . New York: Appleton.

Germany and the Next War General F. Von Bernhardi .. Toronto: McClelland.

How Germany Makes War General F. Von Bernhardi .. London: Hodder.

Cavalry in War and Peace General F. Von Bernhardi. . London: Hodder.

The German Enigma Georges Bourdon London: Dent & Sons.

Germany and England Prof. J. A. Cramb London: Murray.

Fighting in Flanders E. A. Powell London: Heinemann.

From the Trenches; Louvain to

the Aisne G. W. Young Toronto: Wm. Briggs.

The Development of the Euro- pean Nations J. Holland Rose London: Constable.

The Anglo-German Problem Charles Sarolyea London: Nelson.

The Real Truth about Germany . Douglas Sladen New York: Putnam.

The Barbarism of Berlin G. K. Chesterton London: Cassell.

Modern Germany J. Ellis Barker London: Dutton.

Thirty Years: Anglo-French Rem- iniscences 1876-1906 Sir Thomas Barclay London: Houghton-Mifflin .

Germany and the German Em- peror G. Herbert Perris New York: Holt & Co.

Germany and the Germans Price Collier New Yoric: Scribners.

The German Emperor and the

Peace of the World Alfred H. Fried New York : Hodder-Stoughton

Operations Upon the Sea Freiher Von Edelsneim New York: Outdoor Press.

The Political Thought of Hein-

rich von Treitschke H. W. C. Davis, M.A New York: Scribners.

The Valour of Ignorance General Homer Lea New York: Harpers.

Armaments and Arbitration Admiral A. T. Mahan New York: Harpers.

The Franco-Prussian War of 1870- Field Marshal Count Von

1871 Moltke New York: Harpers.

-

MAJOR-GENERAL THE HON. SAMUEL HUGHES, M.P.

Minister of Militia and Defence for Canada.

THE

CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS

I.— THE COMING OF THE WORLD-WAR

Of the vast and fateful conflict into which Canada, The Historical as a part of the British Empire, was flung in 1914, ff^he'wwTin it maY be said that history, in one basic element, at 1914 least, had repeated itself. World-power had been held

by Rome, attempted by France in the days of Charle- magne and Louis XIV and Napoleon, obtained for a time by Spain and held in later days by Great Britain. To have and to hold such domination required varied and changing national qualities in these different centuries. Those of the British people included1 special strength and skill in Naval affairs, with extraordinary love of liberty, and the ability to combine traditions, loyalty, and in- dividual effort, in varied climes and countries, into a loose yet power- ful unity. Such world-power as Britain had built up at the end of the 19th Century was bound to be challenged by Germany, as its beginnings had been menaced by Spain and its continued develop- ment threatened by France. It will be challenged again in varied ways and forms by the great rival Powers of the future whether separately or in unison, whether by peaceful competition or forceful war whether by the greater Russia of years to come, a United States bursting its semi-continental bounds, a Japan anxious for world-domination, or some great new force in the evolution of nations. It was this almost inevitable German challenge to Britain, an ambition for sea-supremacy which was incompatible with British safety, a non-comprehension of British national ethics and morality, that made the struggle between the Germanic Powers on the one hand, and Russia and France on the other, expand into a still greater con- flict and include the British Empire within its sphere. Russia, in its slow, awkward, massive movement toward greater power was certain to sooner or later come into competition with German am- bitions; France in its accumulation of wealth, concentration of armed strength, and unforgettable resentments over Alsace-Lorraine was an assured enemy of Germany in such a struggle; Germany believed and its leaders of thought instructed the people, that a collision with these countries must come and that later on Great Britain would be faced and overpowered. Under such conditions

18 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW

War in some great and terrible form was inevitable; if not in this particular year of 1914 then within a period measurable, perhaps, by months, certainly by a short term of years. It had been averted over the Morocco incident, it had been postponed at Agadir, Russia had given way as to Bosnia and Herzegovina, the flare-up in the Bal- kans had been localized. But the dry materials of a conflagration remained in Central Europe, and grew more and more ready for the devastating flames as months rolled on, as racial passions and animosities grew, as military preparations increased.

The War was the culmination of forty years of German aggressive ambition and cultivated national pride, of militarist rivalry in which Germany was admittedly by friends and foes alike the pivot upon which all war preparation turned and the factor by which the Great Powers measured themselves. A defensive treaty in 1879 had brought Germany and Austria together in a Dual Alliance directed, chiefly, against possible Russian aggression caused by the attitude of Germany in helping to take from the northern empire, at the Congress of Berlin, the fruits of its war with Turkey. This alignment became a Triple Alliance in 1882 when it was joined by Italy and later it became an offensive and defensive alliance of the Teuton powers and Italy with the proviso on the latter's part that any war, in which she might be involved under its terms, must not be an aggressive one. After 1890, and the removal of Bis- marck from the control of German diplomacy, Russia drifted gradu- ally into friendly relations with France and these merged in 1894 into a Dual Alliance of the two powers which provided for definite, con- certed action in the event of war.

Britain commenced to abandon her "splendid isolation" after the South African War when so much hostility was shown her by the peoples of Europe and, in 1904, a general agreement was con- cluded between M. Delcasse for France and Lord Lansdowne for Britain which gave the latter country a free hand in Egypt and the former full liberty of action in Morocco. The entente cordiale followed and this good feeling was earnestly cultivated between the two countries until it became virtually an alliance for mutual defence though not technically so and without absolutely defined pledges. In 1907, also, England came to terms with Russia as to respective spheres of Eastern influence and various causes of misunderstanding in Afghanistan, Persia and Thibet; gradually friendly relations, though without any definite agreement, between the two Empires took the place of the long period of open hostility or repressed rivalry, and continuous secret suspicion, which had marked Russia's advance through Central Asia and her century-long ambitions regarding Constantinople.

This rearrangement of relations enabled Britain, France and Russia to meet Germany's strenuous diplomacy with vigour and resource. Before the rapprochment had become complete France was compelled in 1906 to permit German interference in Morocco, to allow Germany to force the retirement of M. Delcasse", its Minister of Foreign Affairs, and to accept the dictates of the ensuing Confer- ence of Algeciras; in 1908, similarly, Russia was compelled to give

THE HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE WAR IN 1914 19

Austria, backed by Germany, her way in the Balkans. After it was consummated German diplomacy received its first serious check at Agadir in 1911, when the Emperor's strong language and the presence of a German gun-boat at the point of controversy were not sufficient to hold that Moroccan port in the face of England's alignment with France upon a basis indicated by Sir Edward Grey in his communication to M. Cambon, French Ambassador at London, on November 22nd, 1912:*

I agreed that if either Government had grave reason to expect an unpro- voked attack by a third Power for something that threatened the general peace, it should immediately discuss with the other whether both Governments should act together to prevent aggression and to preserve peace and, if so, what mea- sures they would be prepared to take in common. If these measures involved action, the plans of the General Staffs would at once be taken into consideration and the Governments would then decide what effect should be given to them.

No offence could be taken to such an elastic arrangement and none appears to have been taken diplomatically even though it greatly hampered German policy. In fact, on April 7th, 1913, after the tension of the Balkan Wars had passed for the moment, by means of the December (1912) Conference in London, Herr Von Bethmann- Hollweg, the German Chancellor, stated in the Reichstag that "Europe will feel grateful to the English Minister of Foreign Affairs for the extraordinary ability and spirit of conciliation with which he conducted the discussion of the Ambassadors in London and which constantly enabled him to bridge over difficulties."

Meanwhile, the keen and dangerous diplomacy of this period had been backed up and pointed by an ever-increasing armed strength. It is a curious fact that while Germany was the pivot upon which these armaments were based the first country to evolve a positive increase in armed strength was France.f No doubt Germany was so strong at the moment that she needed no increase to hold her position of dominance; no doubt, also, France was very weak and desired to regain its power and self-respect if not to go the full length of revenge. The "Boulanger Law" of 1886 raised the peace footing of the French Army to 500,000 men as compared with Germany's 427,000 and its large reserves. Bismarck replied by adding 41,000 men to the Army and, in 1893, the German peace establishment was further raised to 479,000 men. The year 1899 saw an increase to 495,000. Between 1886 and 1914 France raised her peace establishment to 545,000 men (including 28,000 Colonial troops) and her war strength to 4,000,000, while Germany's force grew to 870,000 men in peace and 5,400,000 in war.J Hence the necessity for France of the Russian alliance and the advantage of the British agreement. Hence, also, the French Army Bill of July 16th, 1913, which lowered the military service age-limit to