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Plate Page

LXVII. Notopteris macdonaldii 36

LXYIII. Arctocephalus ur sinus (skull) 102

LXIX. delalandii (skull) 107

LXX. gillespii (skull) 107

LXXI. Ornithorhynchus anatinus 213

LXXII. Arctocephalus monteriensis (skull) 358

LXXIII. Equus hiang 353


CL. Dendrocincla anabatina 50

CLI. Chloronerpes sanguinolentus 50

CLII. Otothrix hodgsoni 101

pj T|j f Plectropterus gambensis \ ,01


CLIV. Vireo josephcB 135

CLV. Carpophaga goliath 160

CLVI. Montifringilla adamsi 169

CLVII. Laimodon albiventris 393

CLVIII. Hybrid between Tadorna vulpanser and Casarca cana . . 442





Callophis intestinalis .


I- maculiceps .

J Callophis univirgatus . \ Vermicella occipitalis.

J Elaps decoratus

I filiformis


YTV / Cynops chinensis

' L Plethodon persimilis

^Y r Cercosaurus rhombifer

V. Liocephalus iridescens J

XXI. Geoclemmys macrocephala 4/8




Plate Page

VII. Haliichthys tceniophora 38

VIII. Peristethus rieffeli 103

j-jr / Glyphisodon biocellatus 222

" L Haligenes tristramii 469


XLIII. Helix rejecta, Sfc 23

XLIV. Helicina fraseri, Sfc 23

XLV. Valuta mamilla 34

■y J Yj f Scissurella mantelli 202

I Cyclostoma articulatum 204

XLVII. Shells collected by Capt. Speke in Central Africa 348

XL VIII. Scapha maria-emma 230

XLIX. New Shells in Mr. Cuming's Collection 428


T Yj / Ascaris halichoris 148

L Tcenia sulciceps Ill

LVII. Attacus edwardsii 115

LVIII.-) , , ,. ^ ,

y ,„ |- Austrauan Coleoptei'a 11/

LX. Lepidopterous Insects belonging to the tribe Bomii/ce*. . 19/

LXI. Hyphantidium sericarium 20/

LXII. Perga eucalypti 209

LXIII. Recent Enfomostraca from Nagpur 231

I New species of Silk-producing Moths from India 237

T YVTT f Pc^P^^^o paradoxa and P. noctis 422

LXVIII. 1 .,. .o.

^ y Papiho cr(£sus 424



XV. Macandrewia azorica 437

XVI. Myliusia callocyathes 437




With References to the several Ariicles contributed by each.

Adams, Arthur, F.L.S., Surgeon H.M.S. 'Actseon.' 'page

Notes on the Scaly Ant-eater (Manis javanicd), taken during life and after death 133

Description of a new Conchiferous Mollusk of the genus Pandora , 487

Adams, A. Leith, A.M., M.B., 22nd Regiment.

The Birds of Cashmere and Ladakh 169

Baird, W., M.D., F.L.S., &c.

Description of a New Species of Tcenia Ill

Description of a rare Entozoon from the Stomach of the Dugong 148

Description of some new recent Entomostraca from Nagpur, collected by the Rev. S. Hislop 231

Description of a New Species of Entozoon (Sclerostoma

sipunculiforme) from the Intestines of the Elephant 425

a 2

Bartlett, a. D.

Note on the Artificial Propagation of Salmon 125

Indications of the existence of a second species of Emeu (BrotncBUs) 205

Remarks on the Habits of a Herring QvW^Larus argentatus) 4Q7

On the most efficient means of preserving the Eggs of Birds in order that they may be afterwards hatched 468

Bennett, Dr. George, of Sydney, F.Z.S., &c.

Notes on the Mooruk (Casuarius bennettii) 32

Notes on the Habits of the Mycteria australis or New Hol- land Jabiru (Gigantic Crane of the Colonists) 47

Description of a New Species of Perga, or Saw-fly, found feeding upon the Eucalyptus citriodora of Hooker, or Wide Bay Lemon-scented Gum-tree 209

Notes on the Duck-bill (^Ornithorhynchus anatinus) .... 213

On the Long-tailed Flying Opossum {Belideus fiaviventris) in a state of nature and in captivity 218

Notes on Australian Cuckoos 221

On the Fish called Glyphisodon biocellatus. 222

Notes on Sharks, particularly on two enormous specimens of Careharias leucas captured in Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales 223

Notes on the range of some species of Nautilus, on the mode of capture, and on the use made of them as an article of food 226

Exhibition of specimens of the Egg of the Mooruk (Casua- rius bennettii) 351

Exhibition of a series of twelve coloured drawings of va- rious species of Nudibranchiate Mollusks from the harbour and vicinity of Port Jackson, New South Wales, made by Mr. G. F. Angas, Secretary of the Australian Museum, Sydney. . 351

CoBBOLD, T. Spencer, M.D.

Letter respecting the Cause of Death of a young Giraffe in the Society's Gardens 494


page Crisp, Edwards, M.D., F.Z.S., &c.

Exhibition 'of a Hen that had assumed the plumage of the Cock 127

Occurrence of a Bantam Hen sitting upon the Eggs of a Water Ouzel (Cinclus aquaticus), and hatching and rearing a young Bird 200

Deshayes, Mons.

A General Eeview of the genus Terebra 270

EL1.IOT, Daniel G., of New York, F.Z.S., &c.

Exhibition of three specimens of Hybrid Ducks from his own collection, obtained on the South Shore of Long Island, U.S. A 437

Gould, John, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c.

Extract from a Letter addressed to him by Dr. George Bennett of Sydney, respecting the Semipalmated Goose. ... 39

Exhibition of Drawing of a Pheasant {Diarxlig alius fas- ciolatus) , 40

List of Birds from the Falkland Islands, with descriptions of the Eggs of some of the species, from specimens collected principally by Captain C. C. Abbott, of the Falkland Islands Detachment 93

On a New Species of Odontophorus 98

On the Members of the genus Rupicola, and whether there are two or more Species 99

On a New Species of Dendrochelidon, or Tree Swift .... 1 00

Exhibition of all the known species of the genus Elaniis, with description of a New Species 126

Description of two New Species of Birds ; one belonging to the family Cuculidce, the othef to Cotu7micece 1 28

List of Birds collected at Tavoy, in the Tenasserim Pro- vinces, by Capt. Briggs, Deputy Commissioner of Taroy .. 149

List of Birds collected in Siam by Sir R. H. Schomburgk, H. B. M. Consul at Bangkok 151


page On the Nidification of the Kingfisher {Alcedo ispida). ... 152

Exhibition of some specimens of Birds of the genus Uro- cissa (Corvidce) 200

Exhibition of specimens of the new Paradise Bird (Semi- optera wallacii), and a Drawing of the Nest and Egg of Sittella chrysoptera 351

Exhibition of a fine -species of Pheasant from Siam, Biar- digallus crawfurdi {D . fasciolatus of Blyth), and of a spe- cimen of the Royal Spoonbill of Australia, Platalea regia , . 353

On two New Species of Cinclus 493

Gray, George Robert, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.

On a New Genus of Goat-Sucker and on a New Species of Enicurus, both from Darjeeling, from the Collection of Brian H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Mem. Z. S 101

Notes on the new Bird of Paradise discovered by Mr. Wallace 130

Exhibition of a drawing of Tringa pectoralis 130

List of the Birds lately sent by Mr. A. R. Wallace from Dorey, or Dorery, New Guinea 153

List of New Caledonian Birds 160

Description of a New Species of Diver {Colymbus) .... 167

On a New Species of the family Paj>i7zow«c?<e from Batchian 424

Gray, Dr. John E., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc, &c.

Description of the adult state of Valuta mamilla. Gray . . 34

Notice of Notopteris, a New Genus of Pteropine Bat from the Feejee Islands 36

Notice of a New Genus of Lophobranchiate Fishes from Western Australia 38

On the Sea-Bear of Foster, the Ursus marinus of Steller, drctocephalus ursinus of Authors , 102

On the Eared-Seal of the Cape of Good Hope {Otaria delalandii) 107

Ipage Descriptions of New Species of Salamanders from China and Siam 229

Description of Scapha maria-emma, a New Species of Volute 230

On the Sea-Lions, or Lobos marinos of the Spaniards, on the Coast of California 357

Description of Maeandrewia and Myliusia, two new forms of Sponges , 437

Description of a New Species of Squirrel (Seiurus siatnensis) from Siam, in the Collection of the British Museum 478

Description of a New Species of Freshwater Tortoise from Siam 47g

Description of some new genera of Lithophytes, or Stony Zoophytes 479

GiJNTHER, Dr. Albert, Foreign Mem. Z. S.

On the^ Genus Elaps of Wagler 79

List of the Cold-blooded Vertebrata collected by Mr. Fraser in the Andes of Western Ecuador 89

Second List of Cold-blooded Vertebrata collected by Mr. Fraser in the Andes of Western Eucador 402

Description of a New Species of Anolis from Central Ame- rica 421

On the Reptiles and Fishes collected by the Rev. H. B. Tristram in Northern Africa 459

Hamilton, Dr. E., F.Z.S., &c.

Exhibition of three curiously plumaged Pheasants 437

Hanley, Sylvanus, F.L.S., &c.

Descriptions of New Univalve Shells from the Collections of H. Cuming, Esq., and S. Hanley, Esq 429

Systematic List of the Species of Doliu?n 487

Hay, Major W. E., F.Z.S., &c.

Notes on the Kiang of Thibet (Equtis kiang) 353

Hewitson, W. C.

Descriptions of Butterflies from the Collection of Mr. Wallace , 422

HoLDSwoRTH, E. W. H., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.

Some additional observations on Zoanthus couchii 1 24

On the Development of Aurelia aurita in the Society's Aquaria 201

Kaup, Dr.

Description of a New Species of Fish, Peristethus rieffeli 1 03

Moore, Frederic, Assist. Nat. Hist. Dep., Museum, India House.

Descriptions of some Asiatic Lepidopterous Insects belong- ing to the tribe Bombyces 197

Synopsis of the known Asiatic Species of Silk-producing Moths, with descriptions of some New Species from India . . 237

Notice of a rare Asiatic Pigeon 400

List of Malayan Birds collected by Theodore Cantor, M.D., with descriptions of imperfectly known Species 443

Moore, Thomas J., Keeper of the Derby Museum, Liverpool. List of Mammals and Birds collected by Mr. Joseph Ley land in Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala 50

Owen, Professor, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c.

On the Gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla, Sav.) 1

Pfeiffer, Dr. Louis.

Descriptions of Twenty-seven New Species of Land-Shells, from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq 23

Descriptions of Two New Species of Melampus from the same Collection 29

Descriptions of Eight New Species of Achatinella from the same Collection 30


page Raddi, Professor. *

Exhibition of numerous Preparations illustrative of one of the Processes of his New Method of Preserving Animal Sub- stances 200

Reeve, Lovell, F.L.S., F.G.S. &c.

Description of Tvfo New Species of Bulimus from the Col- lection of Mrs. De Burgh 123

Sandwith, Humphrey, C.B., Pres. of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of the Mauritius.

Notice of the Habits of the Aye-Aye of Madagascar {Chiromys madagascariensis) Ill

Schlagintweit, Hermann.

Exhibition of specimens of Heads of a Sheep from Thibet, showing a curious modification in the form of the Horns 350

Sclater, Philip Lutley, M.A., F.L.S., Secretary to the Society.

Descriptions of New Species of the American family TyrannidcB 40

Description of a New Species of Owl of the genus Ciccaba 131

Note on the Spurwinged Geese (Plectropterus) now living in the Society's Gardens 131

List of the first Collection of Birds made by Mr. Louis Eraser at Pallatanga, Ecuador, with Notes and Descriptions of NSw Species 135

On some New Species of Synallaxis, and on the Geogra- phical Distribution of the Genus 191

Exhibition of two rare species of Arctic Birds Colymhus adamsi and Eurinorhynchus pygmceus 201

A Record of the number of Days of Incubation of Birds which breed in the Society's Gardens 205

Remarks on exhibiting specimens of Two Species of Divers {Colymbus) from Mr. Gurney's Collection 206

On a Collection of Birds from Vancouver's Island 235


page A Synopsis of the Thrushes (Turdidee) of the New World 321

Exhibition of an Egg laid by the Apteryx (A. mantelli) which had been living in the Gardens since 1852 350

Exhibition of Eggs of Grus montignesia, G. virgo, and G. cinerea, also of an Egg of Balceniceps rex 353

On a series of Birds collected in the vicinity of Jalapa in Southern Mexico 362

List of Birds collected by M. A. Boucard in the State of Oaxaca in South-western Mexico, with descriptions of New Species 369

On some new or little-known Birds from the Rio Napo . . 440

On some Hybrid Ducks bred in the Society's Gardens . . 442

Scott, A. W., M. A., Member of the Legislative Assemibly, New South Wales.

On a New Lepidopterous Lasect from Australia 207

Description of a species of Perga, or Sawfly 209


Description of Shells in the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. 428

Speke, Capt. J. H., 46th B. N. I.

Notes on the Habits of Two Mammals observed in the Somali Country, Eastern Africa 234

Stevens, Samuel.

Exhibition of two beautiful new Butterflies collected by Mr. Wallace in the Island of Batchian 351

Stewart, Thomas Hovi ard, F.Z.S.

Exhibition of specimens of Corystes cassivelaunus, and the young of Comatula rosea 495

Thompson, William.

On a species of Eolis, and also a species oiLomanotus new to science ; with the description of a specimen of Eolis ccervlea of Montagu 65

'page Tomes, Robert F.

Description of Six hitherto undescribed Species of Bats . . 68

Tristram, Rev. H. B., Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Exhibition of some Mammals, Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes collected in the Algerian Sahara 353

Notes on the Reptiles and Fishes of the Sahara 475

Verreaux, M. Jules, Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Description d'une nouvelle espece de Barbu de I'Afrique occidentale 393

Von DEM BusCH, Dr.

On some new Freshwater Shells from Ecuador and New Granada, in the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq 167

Wallace, A. R.

Extract from a letter received by Mr. S. Stevens from Mr. Wallace, dated Batchian, October 29, 1858, referring to a new Bird of Paradise , 1 29

White, Adam, F.L.S., Assist. Zool. Dep. Brit. Mus.

Description of an Attacns from the East Indies, hitherto apparently unrecorded 115

Descriptions of unrecorded species of Australian Coleo- ptera of the families Carahidce, Buprestidce, Lamellicornia, Longicornia, &c 117

Woodward, S. P., F.G.S., &c.

On a New Species of Mollusk of the genus Scissurella, D'Orb 202

Note on Cyclostoma articulatum 204

On some New Freshwater Shells from Central Africa. . . . 348











[Price 2s.]






Page On the Gorilla {Troglodytes gorilla, Sav.). By Prof. Owen,

F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c 1

Descriptions of Twenty-seven New Species of Land-Shells from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. By Dr. Louis Pfeiffkr 23

Descriptions of Two New Species of Melampus from Mr. Cu- ming's Collection. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer - 29

Notes on the Mooruk {Casuarius bennettii). By George

Bennett 32

Description of the Adult State of Voluta mamilla. Gray. By

Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c 34

Notice of Notopteris, a New Genus of Pteropine Bat from the Feejee Islands. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c 36

Notice of a New Genus of Lophobranchiate Fishes from Western

Australia. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. . . 38

Descriptions of New Species of the American Family Tyran-

nidcB. By Philip Lutley Sclater 40

Notes on the Habits of the Mycteria australis or New Holland Jabiru (Gigantic Crane of the Colonists). By George Bennett 47

List of Mammals and Birds collected by Mr. Joseph Leyland in Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala. By Thomas J. Moore, Keeper of the Derby Museum, Liverpool .50

On a Species of Eolis, and also a Species of Lomanotus new to science ; with the Description of a specimen of Eolis ccerulea of Montagu. By William Thompson. Com- municated by Dr. J. E. Gray 65

[^Contents continued on page 3 of Wrapper.



January 11, 1859- Dr. Gray, F.R.S., V.P., in the Chair.

The following papers were read :

1. On the Gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla, Sav.)* By Prof. Owen, F.R,S., V.P.Z.S., &c.

Before referring to earlier indications of the truly extraordinary animal of which an entire specimen has now been obtained, indications scarcely more instructive or convincing to the naturalist than those afloat on the Unicorn or Succatyro, the author proceeded briefly to recapitulate the steps which led to the determination and full know- ledge of the gi'eat anthropoid Ape of Africa called Troglodytes gorilla.

The first authentic information he had received of its existence was by a letter from Dr. Savage, dated ' Gaboon River, West Africa,' April 24, 1847, inclosing a sketch of the cranium, and requesting that the results of Prof. Owen's comparison might be communicated to him. That letter and those results are given in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society' for February 22, 1848; together with the description of three skulls, two of male and one of a female, which had been transmitted from the Gaboon to England, and which established the distinction of the species {Troglodytes gorilla) from the Chimpanzee {Troglodytes }iiger)f.

The skulls obtained by Dr. Savage, at the Gaboon, were taken by him to Boston, U. S., and were described by the Doctor and Prof. Wyman, in the * Journal of the Natural History Society of Boston,'

* This paper •will be pi'inted in the ' Transactions,' illustrated with several plates.

t 'Transactions of the Zool. Soc' vol. iii., p. 381, pis. 58-63.

No. 384. Proceedings of the Zoological Society.

vol. v., 1847, and the name Troglodxjtes gorilla was proposed for the species, the discovery of which is due to Dr. P. S. Savage.

Translations of Dr. Wyman's and Prof. Owen's papers heing pub- lished in the 'Annales des Sciences Naturelles', the attention of Continental Naturalists was strongly excited toward this unexpected addition to the Mammalian class ; and the inducements held out for the collection of specimens speedily led to the acquisition of the requisite materials for completing the zoographical history of the animal which it seems now agreed to call ' Gorilla.' The additional materials which reached London, enabled the author to communi- cate to the Zoological Society (* Proceedings of the Zool. Soc' for Nov. 11th, 1851.)* a description of the entire skeleton of the Trog- lodytes gorilla ; of which, however, owing to the number and cost of the illustrations, two parts only have yet appeared in the 'Trans- actions of the Society ' (vol. iv., pt. iii., p. 75, pis. 26-30 & pt. iv., p. 89, pis. 31-36.) : but the main facts are recorded in the au- thor's Catalogue of the ' Osteological Collection in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons,' 4to, pp. 782-804. Entire skeletons of the full-grown Troglodytes gorilla are now set up in the Museum of the College, and in the British Museum ; and Dr. Gray has finally acquired for the National Collection the stuifed specimen of a nearly adult male Gorilla.

All the foregoing specimens were obtained from a part of the west coast of tropical Africa traversed by the rivers ' Danger ' and ' Ga- boon,' in latitudes to 15° S.

A corresponding series of illustrations, first crania, then the skeleton, finally an entire specimen of the Troglodytes gorilla, have successively reached the Museum of the Garden of Plants, Paris, and have afforded materials for interesting and instructive memoirs from the accomplished Professors in that noble establish- ment for extending and diffusing the science of Natural tlistory.

De Blainville had caused a lithograph to be prepared of the skeleton of the Gorilla, shortly before his demise. His successor, Prof. Duvernoy, communicated a description of this skeleton to the Academy of Sciences in 1853, which is published, with some inter- esting particulars of the anatomy of the soft parts, in the ' xlrchives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' tome vii. (1855). The Memoirs and Observations by his accomplished colleague the Professor of Mammalogy and Ornithology, Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire, on the Gorilla will be found in the ' Comptes Rendus de 1' Academic des Sciences,' January 19, 1852, and subsequent numbers ; in the ' Revue de Zoologie,' No. II., 1853 ; the whole being summed up in the part of his excellent ' Description des Mammiferes nouveaux,' &c. 4to, which appeared in vol. x. of the 'Archives du Museum, 1858.'

The differences in the results of the observations by the American, French, and English authors, relate chiefly to the interpretation of the facts observed. Dr. Wyman agrees with Prof. Owen in referring the Gorilla to the same genus as the Chimpanzee, but he differs

* See also ' Literary Gazette,' Nov. 15, 1851.

from him in regarding the latter as being more nearly allied to the Human kind. Professors I. GeoiF. St. Hilaire and Duvernoy regard the differences in the osteology, dentition, and external characters of the Gorilla to be of generic importance, and enter it in the Zoolo- gical Catalogue as Gorilla Gina, the nomen triviale being taken from 'Weggeena;' ' N. Gina' and 'D. jina,' as the name of the beast in the Gaboon tongue, has been diversely written by voyagers*. The French naturalists also concur with the American in placing the Gorilla below the Chimpanzee in the scale. The author returned to the discussion of those questions at the conclusion of his paper, when he also referred to the notion current in some works that the long-armed apes {Hylobates), and not the Orangs or Chimpanzees, were the most anthropoid of apes.

Entering upon the description of the exterior characters of the adult male Gorilla, the stuflFed skin of which is now in the British Museum, Prof. Owen first called attention to the shortness, almost absence, of the neck, due to the backward articulation of the head to the trunk and the concomitant development of the spines of the neck-vertebrse ; also to the chin which, in the usual pose of the head, descends below the manubrium sterni ; to the great size of the scapulae, to the elevation of the acromion, and the oblique positioir of the clavicles which rise from their sternal attachments obliquely to above the level of the angles of the jaw. The brain-case, low and narrow, passes in the old male in an almost straight line from the occiput to the superorbital ridge, the prominence of which gives the most forbidding feature to the physiognomy of the Gorilla. It is a feature strongly marked on the skeleton, but is exaggerated in the stuffed animal by the thick supraciliary roll of integument which forms a scowling penthouse over the small deep-set eyes. The nose is a more prominent feature than in the Chimpanzee or Orang-utan ; there is a slight median rise along its upper half, answering to the feeble prominence of the same part of the nose- bones, but the lower or alar part of the nose offers two thick pro- jections, arching, each across its own nostril, and becoming thicker as it subsides in the upper lip. There is a median longitudinal depression between these arched flaps ; but their prominence brings them into view in the profile of the face. The point of median confluence of the alee projects a little beyond the fore part of the * septum narium.' The resemblance to the lowest form of the negro nose is much closer in the Gorilla than in the Chimpanzee. The mouth is wide, the lips large and thick, but of uniform thickness, the upper one terminating by a straight, almost as if incised, margin ; but behig relatively shorter than in the Chimpanzee. The dark pigment is continued from the base of the lip to this margin, and

* The main discrepancy, in regard to matter of fact, is tliat the arms of the Gorilla are stated by Isid. GeofFroy, to be much longer, whilst Prof. Owen found them to be relatively shorter, than those of the Chimpanzee.

art. r de proportions presque humaines Genre I. Troglodytes.

' ^\beaucoup plus longs que chez Thomme ... Genre II. Gorilla."

Isid. Geoffr., p. 15.

no part of the red inner lining would be visible when the lips were naturally closed : a little of this lining, which forms what is com- monly understood by 'lip ' in man, might be shown by the under lip of the Gorilla, but it is obscured by added pigment, as in most negro races. The chin is short and receding, but the whole face is promi- nent. The circumference of a front view of the head presents an oval with the great end downward and the upper end very narrow, owing to the parietal ridge, in the old male. The superorbital or cranial part is confined to the upper fourth in this view, and the bestial aspect of the visage is much increased when the huge promi- nent tusks are exposed by opening the lips. The eyelids have eye- lashes almost as in man ; but the eyebrow is not defined, the hair of the head extending to the supraciliary roll, which is almost devoid of hair. In a direct front view the ears are rather above the level of the eyes : they are as much smaller in proportion to the head, as in the Chimpanzee they are larger, in comparison with man ; but in structure they resemble the human auricle move than does the ear of any other ape.

The tragus and anti-tragus, the helix and anti-helix, the concha, the fossa of the anti-helix and the lobulus are distinctly defined : the chief difference is the large size of the concha compared with the fossa of the anti-helix and the lobulus : but though the lobulus is small it is distinctly marked and pendulous, while it is sessile in the Chimpanzee and Orang. Both tragus and anti-tragus are nearly as prominent as in man. The helix is reflected or folded centrally from its origin to opposite the anti-tragus as in man, whereas, in the Chimpanzee the fold subsides opposite the fossa of the anti-helix, and the rest of the margin of the auricle is simple, not folded. The upper part of the helix is more produced in the Gorilla than in man, and the greatest breadth of the ear is above the concha, in which the incisura intertragica is less deep than in man.

The skin of the face is naked and much wrinkled ; a pretty deep indent divides the nasal ala from the cheek, and becomes shallower as it bends upward, inward, and downward to the median indent between the alse. The hairy part of the scalp is continued to the superorbital prominence, and thence the hair-clad skin is continued outward and downward upon the sides of the deep cheeks, where the hair is long. The chest is of great proportional capacity, and the shoulders very wide across. The profile of the trunk behind describes a slight convexity from the nape, which projects beyond the occiput, downward to the sacrum : there is no iiibending at the loins, which seem wanting. The abdomen is prominent both before and at the sides. The pectoral regions are slightly marked and show the pair of nipples placed as in the Chimpanzee and Man. In the male the penis is short and subcorneal, the prepuce is devoid of frsenum ; the scrotum is broader and more sessile than in man : the perinaeum is longer, the anus being placed further back than in man. There is no trace of ischial callosities. The glutsei are better developed and give more of the appearance of nates than in any other anthropoid ape, but they do not project so as to meet beyond the anus and conceal it.

The chief deviations from the human structure are seen in the limbs, which are of great power, the upper ones prodigiously strong, making by comparison the legs, through the want of ' calves ', look feeble.

The first characteristic is the almost uniform thickness of each segment of the limb : this is seen in the arm, from below the short deltoid prominence to the condyles, neither biceps nor triceps making any definite swelling ; a like uniform thickness is seen in the antibrachium from below the olecranon to the wrist : the leg a little increases in thickness from the knee to the ankle : the short thigh shows some decrease as it descends : but there is a general absence of those partial muscular enlargements which impart the graceful varying curves to the outlines of the limbs in man. Yet this, upon dissection, is found to depend rather on excess, than defect, of deve- lopment of the carneous as compared with the tendinous parts of the limb-muscles, which thvis continue of almost the same size from their origin to their insertion, with a proportionate gain of strength to the beast. The difference in the length of the upper limbs between the Gorilla and Man is but little in comparison with the trunk ; it appears greater through the arrest of development of the lower limbs. Very significant of the closer anthropoid affinities of the Gorilla is the superior length of the arm (humerus) to the fore-arm, as compared with the proportions of those parts in the Chimpanzee. The hair of the arm inclines downward, that of the fore-arm upward, as in the Chimpanzee. The thumb extends a little beyond the base of the proximal phalanx of the fore-finger ; it does not reach to the end of the metacarpal bone of that finger in the Chimpanzee or any other ape : the thumb of the Siamang {Hylohates syndactyla) is still shorter in proportion to the length of the fingers of the same hand : the philosophical zoologist will see great significance in this fact. In man the thumb extends to, or beyond, the middle of the first pha- lanx of the fore-finger.

The fore-arm in the Gorilla passes into the hand with very slight evidence, by constriction, of the wrist, the circumference of which, without the hair, was fourteen inches, that of a strong averaging eight inches. The hand is remarkable for its breadth and thickness, and for the great length of the palm, occasioned both by the length of the metacarpus and the greater extent of undivided integument between the digits than in man ; these only begin to be free opposite the middle of the proximal or first phalanges in the Gorilla. The digits are thus short, and appear as if swollen and gouty ; and are conical in shape after the first joint, by tapering to nails, which, being not larger or longer than those of man, are relatively to the fingers much smaller. The circumference of the middle digit at the first joint in the Gorilla is 5^ inches ; in man, at the same part, it averages 2|- inches. The skin covering the middle phalanx is thick and cal- lous on the back of the fingers, and there is little outward appear- ance of the second joint. The habit of the animal to apply those parts to the ground, in occasional progression, is manifested by these callosities. The back of the hand is hairy as far as the divisions of


the fingers ; the palm is naked and callous. The thumb, besides its shortness, according to the standard of the human hand, is scarcely half so thick as the fore-finger. The nail of the thumb did not ex- tend to the end of that digit ; in the fingers the nail projected a little beyond the end, but with a slightly convex worn margin, resembling the human nails in shape, but relatively less.

In the hind limbs, chiefly noticeable was that first appearance in the quadrumanous series of a muscular development of the gluteus, causing a small buttock to project over each tuber ischii. This structure, with the peculiar expanse, as compared with other Qua- drumana, of the iliac bones, leads to an inference that the Gorilla must naturally and with more ease resort occasionally to station and progression on the lower limbs than any other ape.

The same cause as in the arm, viz. a continuance of a large pro- portion of fleshy fibres to the lower end of the muscles, coextensive with the thigh, gives a great circumference to that segment of the limb above the knee-joint, and a more uniform size to it than in man. The relative shortness of the thigh, its bone being only eight-ninths the length of the humerus (in man the humerus averages five-sixths the length of the femur), adds to the appearance of its superior rela- tive thickness. Absolutely the thigh is not of greater circumference at its middle than is the same part in man.

The chief difference in the leg, after its relative shortness, is the absence of a " calf," due to the non-existence of the partial accumu- lation of carneous fibres in the upper half of the gastrocnemii muscles, causing that prominence in the type-races of mankind. In the Go- rilla the tendo-achillis not only continues to receive the "penni- form" fibres to the heel, but the fleshy parts of the muscles of the foot receive accessions of fibres at the lower third of the leg, to which the greater thickness of that part is due, the proportions in this respect being the reverse of those in man. The leg expands at once into the foot, which has a peculiar and characteristic form, owing to the modifications favouring bipedal motion being superinduced upon an essentially prehensile quadrumanous type. The heel makes a more decided backward projection than in the Chimpanzee ; the heel- bone is relatively thicker, deeper, more expanded vertically at its hind end, besides being fully as long as in the Chimpanzee. This bone, so characteristic of anthropoid affinities, is shaped and propor- tioned more like the human calcaneum than in any other ape. The malleoli do not make such well-marked projections as in man ; they are marked more by the thickness of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles that pass near them, on their way to be inserted into parts of the foot. Although the foot be articulated to the leg with a slight inversion of the sole, it is more nearly plantigrade than in the Chimpanzee or any other ape. The hairy integument is con- tinued along the dorsum of the foot to the clefts of the toes, and upon the first phalanx of the hallux : the whole sole is bare.

The hallux (great toe, thumb of the foot), though not relatively longer than in the Chimpanzee, is stronger ; the bones are thicker in proportion to their length, especially the last phalanx, which in

shape and breadth much resembles that in the human foot. The hallux in its natural position diverges from the other toes at an angle of 60 deg. from the axis of the fo.ot ; its base is large, swelUng into a kind of ball below, upon which the thick callous epiderm of the sole is continued. The transverse indents and wrinkles show the frequency and freedom of the flexile movements of the two joints of the hallux : the nail is small, flat, and short. The sole of the foot gradually expands from the heel forward to the divergence of the hallux, and seems to be here cleft, and almost equally, between the base of the hallux and the common base of the other four digits. These are small and slender in proportion, and their bases are en- veloped in a common tegumentary sheath as far as the base of the second phalanx. A longitudinal indent at the middle of the sole, bifurcating one channel defining the ball of the hallux, the other running towards the interspace between the second and third digit indicates the action of opposing the whole thumb (which seems rather like an inner lobe or division of the sole), to the outer division ter- minated by the four short toes. What is termed the "instep" in man is very high in the Gorilla, owing to the thickness of the carneo- tendinous parts of the muscles as they pass from the leg to the foot over this region. The mid-toe (third) is a little longer than the second and fourth ; the fifth, as in man, is proportionally shorter than the fourth, and is divided from it by a somewhat deeper cleft. The whole sole is wider than in man relatively to its length much wider, and in that respect, as well as by the offset of the hallux, and the definition of its basal ball, more like a hand, but a hand of huge dimensions and of portentous power of grasp.

In regard to the outward coloration of the Gorilla, only from the examination of the living animal could the precise shades of colour of the naked parts of the skin be truly described. Much of the epiderm had peeled oiF the subject of the present description ; but fortunately in large patches, and the texture of these had acquired a certain firmness, apparently by the action of the alcohol upon the albuminous basis. The able taxidermist, Mr. Bartlett, has availed himself of this circumstance in the correct and satisfactory prepara- tion of the specimen now mounted for the British Museum. The parts of the epiderm remaining upon the face indicated the skin there to be chiefly of a deep leaden hue ; it is everywhere finely wrinkled, and was somewhat less dark at the prominent parts of the supraciliary roll and the prominent margins of the nasal "alse :" the soles and palms were also of a lighter colour.

Although the general colour of the hair appears, at first sight, and when moist, to be almost black, it is not so, but is rather of a dusky grey : it is decidedly of a less deep tint than in the Chimpanzee (Trogl. niger) : this is due to an admixture of a few reddish, and of more greyish hairs, with the dusky-coloured ones which chiefly con- stitute the " pelage " : and the above admixture varies at different parts of the body. The reddish hairs are so numerous on the scalp, especially along the upper middle region, as to make their tint rather predominate there ; they blend in a less degree with the long hairs

upon the sides of the face. The greyish hairs are found mixed with the dusky upon the dorsal, deltoidal and anterior femoral regions ; but, on the limbs, not in such proportion as to affect the impres- sion of the general dark colour, at first view. The hairs are wavy, approaching to a woolly character. Near the margin of the vent are a few short whitish hairs, as in the Chimpanzee. The epiderm of the back showed the effects of habitual resting, with that part against the trunk or branch of a tree, occasioning the hair to be more or less rubbed off: the epiderm was here very thick and tough.

It is most probable, from the degree of admixture of different coloured hairs above described, that a living Gorilla seen in bright sunlight, would in some positions reflect from its surface a colour much more different from that of the Chimpanzee than appears by a comparison of the skin of a dead specimen sent home in spirits. It can hardly be doubted, also, that age will make an appreciable differ- ence in the general coloration of the Troglodytes gorilla.

The adult male Gorilla measures five feet six inches from the sole to the top of the head, the breadth across the shoulders is nearly three feet, the length of the upper limb is three feet four inches, that of the lower limb is two feet four inches ; the length of the head and trunk is three feet six inches, whilst the same dimension in man does not average three feet.

In the foregoing remarks the author had given the results of direct observations made on the first and only entire specimen of the Gorilla which had reached England. At the period when they were made, no other description of its external characters had reached him ; and if the majority of them be found to agree with previously recorded observations by naturalists enjoying earlier opportunities of studying similarly preserved specimens, the rarity and importance of the species might excuse, if it did not justify, a se