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New Serres No. 877.




wr BY 6. A. GRIERSON,.C.LE., Px.D.,

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| fssiatic Society oF PENGAL, \ / fk No. 57, PARK STREET, CALCUTTA, | AND OBTAINABLE FROM है 7 rd THE SOCIETY’S AGENTS, ७४४४७. LUZAC & CO. 7 46, Great Russert Srreet, Lonpon, W.C., anp Mr. Orro p Harrassowi?z, Booxsetter, Lurezic, Gurany.

I35 V3 a

रा Complete copies of those works marked with an asterisk * cannot be supplied—some

“५-० ७--


of the Fasciculi being out of stock. —————————————


Sanskrit Series.

Advaita Brahma Siddhi, (Text) Fase. -4 @ /6/ each = Rs. 4 8 Ger) *Aoni Purana, (Text) Fase. 2-4 @ /6/each ... A 42400 7 \\ Aitareya Aranyaka of the Re Veda, (Text) Fase. I-5 @ /6/ each 5.3७ aa

Aitaréya Brahmana, Vol. I, Fasc. -5 and Vol. II, Fase. -5 Vol. III,

Fasc. @ /6/ nee ee as a een: | 2 Anu Bhasyam, (Text) Fasc. -2 @ /6/ each 0 22 Aphorisms of Sandilya, (English) Fase. l es [५ 0 6 Astasahasrika Prajfaparamita, (Text) Fase. -6 @ /6/ each 2 4 Acyavaidyaka, (Text) Fase. l-6 @ |6/ each ©... 3, Ae 0 bY Avadana Kalpalata, (Sans. and Tibetan) Vol. I, Fase. i-5; Vol. II. Fasc.

-4. @ / each re he ats ees ees) *Bhamati, (Text) Fasc. 2-8 @ /6/ each 2 0 Brahma Sitra, (English) Fasc.]_— ... 0 32 Brhaddéyata (Text) Fasc. l-4 @ /6/ each oH ee eT 8 Brhaddharma Purana, (Text) Fase. -5 @ /6/ each ak Mes tania i Brhadaranyaka Upanisad (English) Fase. 2-3 @ /6/ each ... y Oo iW Caitanya-Chandrodaya Nataka, (Text) Fasc. 2-3 @ /6/ each (60753 tj *Cankara Vijaya, (Text) Fasc. 2 and 3 @ /6/ each i RO 49 *Caturvarga Chintamani (Text) Vols. IT, i-25; III. Part I, Fase. -8,

Part II, Fasc. l-l0 @ /6/ each Re de ee te etn 2: *Chandogya Upanisad, (English) Fase. 2 का Le 6 Granta Sitra of Apastamba, (Text) Fasc. ]-8 @ /6/ each... Rs. 4 34 * Ditto Latyayana, (Text) Fasc. 2-9 @ /6/ each... Sunt a 0

Ditto Cinkhayana, (Text) Vol. I, Fase. -7; Vol. II, Fase.

# -4, Vol. III, Fasc. -3 @ /6/ each... ob 4 Gri Bhishyam, (Text) Fasc. ]-ह oe each Ry २५८ ae | 2 *Hindu Astronomy, (English) 2-3 @ /6/ each adele aio ke Kala Madhava, (Text) Fasc. l™:@ /6/each ... Sell 8 Katantra, (Text) Fase. l-6 @ /2/ each Nes . 4 8 Katha Sarit Sagara, (English) Fasc. l-l4 @ /2/ each . 40 8 Kurma Purana, (Text) Fase. -9 @ /6/ each eee} 6 *Lalita-Vistara, (Text) Fasc, 3-6 @ /6/ each l 8

Ditto (English) Fase. -3 @ /2/ each 2 4 Madana Parijata, (Text) Fasc. I-l] @ /6/ each... 4 2 Manutika Sangraha, (Text) Fase. l-3 @ /6/ each 2 *Markandeya Purana, (Text) Fasc. 4-7 @ /6/ each ॥॥ s Markandéya Purana, (English) Fase. l-4 @ ॥2 each 3 0 Mimamsa Dargana, (Text) Fasc. 8-9 @ /6/ each 6 6 *Narada Smrti, (Text) Fasc. l-3 @ /6/ ५० ॥। 2 Nyayavartika, (Text) Fase. l-3 @ /6/ bie ~ २४४१ OF 2 *Nirukta, (Text); Vol. III, Fase. |-6; Vol. TV, Fasc. -8 @ /6/ each. 5 4



The following is an attempt to give a correct text and translation of the Padumawati,' or Padmavati of Malik Muhammad of Jayas in Oudh. He flourished under Sher Shah in the year 540 A.D., and numerous MSS. of his great poem are in existence.

The value of the Padumawati consists chiefly in its age. Malik Muham- mad is, we believe, the oldest vernacular poet of Hindistan of whom we have any uncontested remains. Cand Bar’dai was much older, but the genuineness of his Prithiraj Ray’sais denied by many competent scholars. Vidyapati Thakur, who lived in the year 400 A.D., has only left us a few songs which have come down to us through five centuries of oral transmis- sion, and which now cannot be in the form in which they were sung. The preservation of the Padumawati is due mainly to the happy accident of Malik Muhammad’s religious reputation. Although profoundly affected by the teaching of Kabir, and familiarly acquainted with Hind& lore, and with the Hindi Yoga philosophy, he was from the first revered as a saint by his Muhammadan co-religionists.

He wrote his poem in what was evidently the actual vernacular of his time, tinged slightly with an admixture of a few Persian words and idioms due to his Musalman predilections. It is also due to his religion that he originally wrote it in the Persian character, and hence discarded all the favourite devices of pandits, who tried to make their language correct by spelling (while they did not pronounce) vernacular words in the Sanskrit fashion, He had no temptation todo this. The Persian character did not lend itself to any. such false antiquarianism. He spelled each word rigorously as it was pronounced. His work is hence a valuable witness to the actual condition of the vernacular language of Northern India in the ]6th century. It is, so far as it goes, and with the exception of a few hints in Alberuni’s Indica, the only trustworthy witness which we have. It is trustworthy, however, only to a certain extent, for it often merely gives the consonantal frame work of the words, the vowels, as is usual in Persian MSS., being generally omitted. Fortunately, the vowels can generally be inserted correctly with the help of a few Dévanagari MSS. of the poem which are in our possession.

Besides its interest asa key toa philological puzzle, the Padumawati also deserves notice for its contents. In itself-it is a fine poetical work, and one of the few original ones, not dealing with either Rama or Krishna, with which we are acquainted in any Indian language. It is also remarkable for the vein of tolerance which runs through it,—a tolerance in every way worthy of Kabir or of Tul’si Das. The story of the poem has been a favourite

l The author himself invariably spells the word thus.


one with eastern authors. Husain Ghaznawi wrote a Persian poem on the subject, entitled Qissae Padmawat. Rai Gobind Munshi in 652 A.D. wrote a version in Persian prose, called (after the chronogram of its date) Tukfatu-l- Kulib. Again Mir Ziyau-d-din ‘Ibrat, and Ghulam ‘Ali ‘Ishrat wrote a joint version in Urdi verse in 796 A.D. Malik Muhammad’s poem was written in 540 A.D.

Concerning the author little is known. He tells us himself that he was the disciple of Sayyad Muhiud-d-in. He studied. Sanskrit Prosody and Rhetoric from Hindt Pandits at Jayas. He belonged to the Oistiya Nizamiya, that is to say, he was the eleventh disciple in descent from the well-known Nizamu-d-din, who died in 325 A.D. Muhiu-d-din’s teacher was Shaikh Burhan, who resided at Kalpi in Bundél’khand, and who is said to have died at the age of a hundred years in A.D. l562-63. The poet was patronized by Shér Shah.

The only other fact which we know for certain is that he was blind of one eye. I have collected the following traditions about him. One of Shér Shah’s allies was Jagat Dév, (enthroned 527 A.D.: died 573 A.D.), Maharaj of Ghazipur and Bhoj’pur. He was present at the battle of Bagh’sar (Buxar) in which Shér Shah defeated Humayin. Malik Muhammad is said to have attended his court. Two of Malik Muhammad’s four friends, whom he mentions in his poem (22) were also patronised by Jagat Dév. These were Yusuf Malik and Saloné Singh (whom Malik Muhammad calls Miy& as if he was a Musalman). It is said that another attendant at Jagat Dév’s court was a Katthak, named Gandharv Raj, who was skilled in the art of singing. Malik Muhammad was greatly attached to him and gave him his blessing, prophesying that skill in song would always remain in his family, and, at the same time, begging him to take, asa sign of affection, his title of Malik. Ever since, Gandharv Raj’s descendants have called themselves Malik, and members of the family still live in Taluka Raipura and at Haldi in Baliya District, and are renowned singers.

It is said that the Raja of Améthi was childless, but was granted a son, in consequence of the prayers of Malik Muhammad. When the poet died, he was buried at Améthi, and his tomb is still shown, and worshipped by believers. Malik Muhammad’s two friends, Malik Yusuf and Saloné, died in what is now the district of Gorakh’pur, from a surfeit of mangoes. Malik Muhammad was with them at the time, and himself narrowly escaped. The mangoes are said to have been infested by poisonous insects.

The text of the Padumawati, being in the théth Hindi language, and written in the Persian character, is very difficult both to read and to under- stand. It has been frequently transliterated into the Nagari character, but the transcriptions, whether MS. or printed, are full of mistakes, generally guesses to make the meaning clear. The best transliterated edition is that by Pandit Ram Jasan of Banaras; but even in his case (putting instances of sanskritization out of sight) hardly a line is correct. There are several printed editions in the Persian character, but they too are all incorrect. We have been fortunate enough to become possessed of several old MSS. of the poem in the Persian character, and by diligent comparison we have endeavoured to reproduce, in the Nagari character, the actual words written by the poet. A glance at the critical notes will show the labour involved in the task.


For the purposes of these specimens, we have used the following MSS. :—

A. MSS. in Persian character (marked collectively as P).

(0) India Office Library, Pers. Cat. 0l8. Dated l07 Hij. =695 A.D. (Ia).

(2) Ditto No. 975. Vowel marks freely used. Correctly written. Dated l09 Hij.=697 A.D. (Ib).

(3) Ditto No. 8l9. Vowel points inserted in red ink by a later hand. Dated l]4 Hij.=702 A.D. (Ic).

(4) India Office Library, Urdu Catalogue, No. 3l30. Few vowel points. In two different handwritings. No date, (Id).

‘All these Persian MSS. are very fairly correct. We have taken Ib. as the basis throughout.

B. MSS. in the Dévanigari character (marked collectively as N).

(l) India Office Library, Sanskrit Catalogue, No. 247l. A magni- ficent copy, profusely illustrated. Written by Thana Kayath of Mirzipur. No date. Spelling highly Sanskritized (Is).

We must here express our thanks to the authorities of the India Office Library, for the loan of the above MSS.

(2) A well written copy kindly lent me by the late Kaviraj Syimal Das, belonging to the library of the Maharaj of Udaipur. Spelling not so Sanskritized. Dated Sambat 895=838 A.D. (U).

C. MSS. in the Kaithi character.

(l) A clearly written copy. With very irregular spelling: and many important variations in the readings. Written in Sambat 8l2=755 A.D. (K).

(2) A well written correct copy, but incomplete. The commence- ment, and several portions in the middle are missing. It also contains several interpolations. Written in Sambat 758 (A.D. 70l), at Vaitala-gadha, by Jaya-krsna Dibé, the son of Hari-ram. The last doha is numbered 739. (४६०).

(3) A fairly correct copy. Complete. Contains several interpola- tions. Commenced in Sambat 4879 (A.D. 822). Writer’s name not mentioned. (४5).

These three books are full of various readings, and owing to the use of the Kaithi character, the spelling is very irregular. All the readings of and K®, have not been inserted, but only those which illuminate doubtful points in the text.

As might be expected in a work sometimes written in the Persian, and sometimes in the Déya-nagari character, the spelling of the MSS. is very capricious. In editing the text, we have adopted a system of spelling, and of representing grammatical forms, which, we believe, represents as nearly as possible the practice of the best copies. In a critical edition, a uniform system of spelling is absolutely essential, and as no single manuscript follows any rules on the subject we have allowed ourselves some latitude. The principal points are as follows :—

Spelling :—Prakrit words are spelt as in the Persian copies. When the Persian copies give vowels, those vowels are adopted. When no vowels are given, we have used our judgment in adopting the vowels given in the Dévanagari and Kaithi copies.


On the other hand, for precisely similar reasons, we have generally adopted the spelling of Arabic and Persian words which is best vouched for by the Dévanagari and Kaithi copies. Such words are phonetically spelt in that alphabet.

U and K uniformly write as %. We have not followed them in this.

The termination १७ xh, is capable of being read as equivalent to either the plural oblique termination *%, or to the singular oblique termination fe or fe. Unless the context showed that नह is required, we have trans- literated it हि. Even in the best Persian MSS. the nasal is inserted so capriciously, that itis at least doubtful whether it should be used in, the singular, and we have accordingly followed the best Dévanagari MSS., in omitting it, in this case, throughout. पे

In Tadbhava words, a Sanskrit or Prakrit medial # becomes @ (Cf. Héma-candra’s Prakrit Grammar, IV. 397). Thus the representative of the Sanskrit कमल्तम्‌ is aa (not कँवल), and of स्मरणस्‌, सर्वरन. This q, at the end of a word becomes G, thus aT¥ (not नाँड), a name. When @or anusvara, however, forms the first member of a compound, the preceding vowel is nasalized. Thus ta (for Prakrit 4), a mango, संवारइ, (for संवारयति), he arranges.

In the preposition 44, the becomes ¥. Thus, Byatte, for आवगाहि, having bathed. In other cases after 4, U, or B, medial remains unchang- ed. Thus पवन, wind, भवन, a house, सेवरा, a savage. After any other vowel, medial is dropped. Thus ywa (for yaa), earth, जिआअना (for जिवना), life. A final always becomes ¥. Thus जोड़ (for जौव), life. Similarly for 4, e.g. नयन.

Scheme of transliteration adopted in this work :—

So, आठ, Fi, Ti, GuGHs, Be, Ve, Bo, Mra. ~ 7, thus Fa, ata, <7,£ %,andsoon. m.

The following vowels occur only in a few Sanskrit words, % 7, ai, atau. In Tadbhava words % and gt do not occur. ¥z is transliterated ai and 4Z aw. In Nagari MSS. when # and ¥t occur, they are plainly steno- graphic signs for WE and अडऊ, This is frequently shown by the metre. There is no danger of confusing |X, WY, and रे, Ht, for they appear in distinct classes of words, 4z, WY, are always in Tadbhava words, or in corrupted Tatsama words, रे and $t occur only in words lifted bodily from Sanskrit :-—

ak, @kh, 9, a gh, S 7.

ac, Bch, |, Wijh, AR.

Ztethsed, 4४, an.

at, th,ed, wdh, an.

"Tp, ph, 4 0, bh, Hm.

ay, २०, Bl. १0, (or in Sanskrit words v). Us, 35, Gh,

श्‌ only occurs in Persian words, representing the Persian (#, or in pure Sanskrit words. In the former case it is transliterated sh, and in the latter by ¢.

Arabic and Persian letters.

०३, ८% 60, ५३७ 32 2 0 ७७० 8, ४१, $(, ४8, ६४७७. shy.




ScpsTANTIVES :=eThe oblique cases are all formed by adding or = for the singular, and or = for the plural, before which, a final long vowel is short- ened, Thus from राजा, a king, have राजहि or was, for the Instrumental (or Agent), Dative, Ablative, Genitive and Locative Singular. In the Plural, नह is sometimes substituted for f¥, thus ara-e (38, 2), in (their) ears. The Nominative Plural is usually the same as the Nominative Singular. Post- positions are not often used. We find, however, az for the Accusative and Dative, #8 for Instrumental and Ablative, @¥, TSI, Ye, and y= for the Locative, and others. The following postpositions are found for the Genitive aor के (fem. az), कर (fem. aft), HX (fem. Aft). At the end of a line we often have केरा (fem. केरो).

Pronouns :—Ist Person; मई, or इज, obl. मोहि or मो, genitive a. Plural

wa, ce.

2nd Person: तुँ or qx, obl. तोहि or तो, genitive तौर or तोचह्र. Plur. qe, ६०.

Demonstrative: 4 or Jes, case of Agent, Fz or YEE, obl. Wis or set: Plur., Nom. or 4%, Agent, 4%, Obl. ua.

Relative: sit, Agent siz, Obl. Safe or जा, Genitive sg, &e. Plur. जे, siz, Agent a=, Obl. (including gen.) fare. जा is never used as an adjective.

So also the Correlative सो or तेदू,

Interrogative: को, who? का what?

Indefinite, कोइ or ATS, anyone, obl. atx. faw, anything.

Singular. Plural. Vurps :—Present:- l. देखज, I see. zafy, gaz. 2. gale, टेखहि, tus. . Fag, Fay. 3. देखसि, 2ufy, gaz, देख. zafe, faz. The forms in and are rather rare. Singular. Plural. Past : l. देखेज; zafe 2. टेखंसि. टेखेक्ल. 3. tafe, टेख (देखा) af. From देना, @tfs, he gave. So लेना. Singular. Plural. Future: l. @faey. देखिर्ई . 2. देखिहदू. देखिरज. 8. देखिहद. देखिहई .

टदेखब, Fem. देखबि, may also be used for all persons of both numbers From देना, we have, 3rd. sg., दोचहदू. Pres. Part: देखत, Past, देख. Conj. Part: देखि, देखि az. From @atand Gat we have €% or देदू, and Mz ०० GE. है The past tense of a neuter verb is thus conjugated.


Singular. Plural. l. aBy, fem. गइज, I went. az, fem. गई. 2. aGBY or गा, ATT. Do. 3. GY or गा, AY. Do. -

The above does not, of course, pretend to be a complete grammar. It is only meant to show the spelling of the principal forms.

The metre of the poem consists of stanzas of seven caupais followed by a daha. In the latter, a matra@ is frequently omitted in the first half. Iy the caupdis, accent is frequently used instead of quantity, a short accented syl- lable being treated as a long one, especially at the end of a line. Malik Muhammad wrote long before Kécava-disa laid down the canons of Hindi metre. Such accented short syllables we have marked, in transliteration with an acute accent, thus,—niramdré (2, 3).


Canto I. Tue Prerace.

(4). Ibear in mind that one and only primal Maker, who gave life and made the world. First made He manifest the Light, then made He (for the Light) the mighty mountain Kailasa.!. He made the fire, the air, the water, and the dust, and, from them, made He forms? of varied hne. He made the Earth, and Heaven, and Hell; and He made incarnations in many persons. He made the mundane egg* with its seven® continents. He made the universe with its fourteen® worlds. He made the sun for the day, and the moon for the night; He made the asterisms and the systems of the stars. He made coolness, sunshine and shade; He made the clouds and

lightning (that abideth) in them,

l By ‘Light, the poet refers to Mahadéva, who dwells in Kailasa. Indian Musal- mans frequently consider Adam, the first man, as the same as Mahadévya. The fact that the poet expressly says that Kailasa was made ‘for’ the Light, shows that he cannot be referring to light, the first of created things. In the system of the Nanak-panthis, to which Kabir, from whom Malik Mahammad borrowed much, originally belonged, the Supreme Being is, in its essence, joti or light, which, though diffused into all creatures, remains distinct from them. The Human Soul is also this light, a scintilla anime divine, which has emanated from the absolute, and is itself immortal. See Trumpp, Adi Granth, pp. ci and ff.

2 An Urdi gloss translates uréha by Us, design, stamp, drawing. I have noted it also in asa murata daz uréht, and in bhat uwréha puhwpa saba nama. In the second the Urdi translation gives और and in the latter, the whole line is trans- lated Eps L rs >* dst Ky Ky AF {i Gy (५० ays 45. The word is still used in Oudh and Bibar by women, in the sense of racand. It is derived from the Skr. ullékha.

3 Apparently, incarnations in many castes. Alluding to the doctrine that incarna- tions have occurred in all religions in many parts of the world. Or it may, as the comm. suggests, only refer to the various avatars of Visnu.

4 T. e., the universe, alluding to the well known tradition detailed in Mann.

5 The seven horizontal divisions of the world, viz., Jambu, Plaksa or Gomédaka, Calmala, Kuga, Krauiica, Gaka, and Puskara.

6 There are seven worlds (loka) above, viz., Bhir-léka, Bhuvar-l., Svar-l., Mahar-l., Janar-l., Tapar-l., and Satya-l. or Brahma-l., and seven below, viz., A-tala, Vi-tala, Su-tala, Rasa-tala, Tala-tala, Maha-tala, and Patala. According to Musalmans, there are seven regions ( (3२% ) above (these are heavens), and seven below (earths),



All things are so made by Him, that naught is worthy to be compared with Him. First take I His name, and then in deep thought do I begin! my story.

2. He made the seven? shoreless oceans, and He made the mountains of Meru and Kukhanda.* Rivers made He, and streams and springs; croco- diles and fish made He of many kinds. He made the oyster shell, and the pearl which filleth it; He made many flawless gems. Forests made He and roots; tall trees made He, palmyras and date palms. He made the wild animals® which dwell in the forest; He made the fowl which fly whither they will. He made colours, white and black; He made sleep, and hunger, and rest. He made the betel-leaf and flowers, and the pleasures of taste; many medicines made He and many sicknesses.

He made them in less than the twinkling of an eye; allmade He in a single instant. He fixed the Heavens in space without a pillar, and without a prop.

3. He made man, and gave him dominion; He made grain for his food. He made the king who taketh pleasure in his kingdom; He made elephants and horses for his array. He made for him many delights; some made He lords, and others slaves. Wealth made He from which cometh pride; He made longings which none can satisfy. He made life which all men ever desire ; He made death, from which none can escape. Happiness made He and myriads of joys; sorrow made He, and care and doubt, Some made He poor and others rich; He made prosperity and very deep adversity.

Some made He weak, and others strong. From ashes made He all, and again turned He all to ashes.

4. He made agallochum, musk, and the scented khas grass; He .made the camphors,—bhimaséni? and céna.? He made the snake in whose mouth dwelleth poison; He made the snake-charm which carrieth off the bite. He made the Water of Life, which giveth eternal life tohim who getteth it; He made the poison, which is death to him who eateth it. He made the sugarcane filled with sweet juice ; He made the acrid creeper with its manifold fruit. He made the honey which the bee stores in its home; He made the humble bee, the birds and winged creatures. He made the fox, the rat and the ant; He made many creatures which dig the earth and dwell therein. He made demons, goblins and ghosts; He made ghouls and Devas and Daityas.

l Two Urdi glosses translate augahi by ¢9,% a meaning for which I can find no other authority. It means literally to plunge into water, hence to be immersed in anything, to have the mind fully occupied.

2 These encircle the seven continents (dvipas) mentioned in ]. 6. Their names are, Lavana (or Ksara), Iksu, Sura (or Madya), Ghrta, Dadhi, Dugdha, Jala. The author, in the description of the seven seas, later on, gives a different enumeration, viz., Khara, Khira, Dadhi, Jala, Sura, Udadhi, Kilakila.

8 Méru is the well-known mountain. It represents the northern hemisphere or pole, and is the abode of the Gods. Kukhanda is Kumeru, the southern hemisphere or pole, the region of the daityas or demons. The poet has mixed this up with Kiskindha, also to the south of Oudh, and has confounded the two names.

4 Jari is a root used for medicine, and m#ri isa root used for food.

5 Sduja is any animal used for food.

6 Two Urdi glosses translate danda by re grief, but the dictionary meaning of the word is enmity (dwandwa). Here it means opposition of ideas, doubt.

7 The Bhimaséna-karpira of Sanskrit.

8 The Cina-karpira of Sanskrit.


He made eighteen thousand creations of varied kinds.! For all did He make meet provision, and thus gave food to all.

5. He indeed is a master of wealth, to whom belongeth the universe ; to all He giveth continually, yet His storehouse minisheth not. To every creature in the world, aye, from the elephant even unto the ant, doth He day and night give its share of nourishment. His eye is upon all: none is forgotten, neither foe nor friend ; nor bird nor grasshopper, nor aught whether manifest or hidden is forgotten. He deviseth dainty food of many kinds. All doth He feed thereof, yet eateth not Himself. His meat and His drink is this— that to all He giveth nourishment and life. All have hope in Him at every breath, nor hath He ever (turned) the hope of any to despair.

Afion after eon doth He give, yet never minisheth (His store). Yea, so doth He this with both hands, that whatever hath been given in this world, hath all been given by Him.

6. Let me tell of Him as that great primal king, whose rule is glorious from the beginning to the end of things. Ever all-bounteous doth He rule, and whom He willeth, rule to him He giveth. He maketh umbrellaless him who hath the umbrella of royalty ; and He giveth its shade unto him who is without it; no other is there who is equal unto Him. The people all look as He upturneth the mountains, and maketh the ant (that crawleth from beneath them) equal unto the elephant. Adamant He maketh like unto straw and scattereth it, and again He maketh straw like adamant, and giveth it honour. For one created He food, and enjoyment and all happiness ; another striketh He with beggary and a home of poverty. No one understandeth what He hath done, for He doeth that which is beyond the power of mind and thought.

All else is non-existent.# He alone is ever the same, whose wondrous creations are such as these. He createth one and destroyeth him, and, if He will, He formeth him again.

7, Invisible, formless and untellable is that Creator; He is one with 3 all, and all are one in Him. Whether manifest or hidden, He is all pervad- ing ; but only the righteous recognize Him, and not the sinful. He hath no son nor father nor mother, no family hath He, and no relations. He hath begotten none, nor is He begotten of any; but all created beings proceed from Him. All things, as many as exist, He made; nor was Hemade by any one. He was at the beginning, and He is now; He alone remaineth existent and no one else. All else that are, are mad and blind; for after but two or four days they do their work and die.

Whate’er He willed that He did, He doeth that He willeth to do. No one is there to prevent Him, and, by his mere will, He gave life to all.

8. In this manner know ye Him, and meditate upon Him, for so is

There is no such enumeration of created beings in the works of Mnsalman doctors, but, in poetry, both Persian and Hiudistani, phrases like hizhda hazar ‘alm, the eighteen thousand created beings, are of frequent occurrence ;—more especially in the class of works called maulzd, which celebrate the Prophet’s birth. The expression merely means an enormous quantity, like our thousand and one.’ ;

2 Urdi gloss wh, transient.

8 The Urda gloss translates barata by ७४:०४ “near,” but I know of no authority for this meaning. Barat means batd hua, twisted as a rope is twisted, hence involved in, closely connected with. Compare Bihari 86086, 59, dithi barata badhi atani, twisting their (mutual) glances into a rope, they bind it from balcony to balcony,


the tale written in the holy book.! The Lord hath no life, and yet He liveth; He hath no hands, and yet He maketh all things, He hath no tongue, yet He telleth everything; He hath no bodily form, yet that which He shaketh,isshaken. Ears hath He not, yet heareth He all things; Heart hath He not, yet The Wise One discriminateth all things. He hath no eyes, yet all things doth He see; How can anyone discern as He doth ? No one hath a form like unto His; nor, like Him, is any one so incomparable. He hath no abiding place, yet He is not without an abiding place (for He is omnipresent). He hath no form nor mark, yet His name is Tue Pure.

He is not indiscrete, nor is He discrete, yet so doth He dwell (within the universe), and fill it (with Himself). To those who can see, He is near, but He is far from the foolish blind.

9. The simple-minded knoweth not the secret of the other priceless jewels which He hath given. He hath given us a tongue, and the pleasures of taste; He hath given us teeth, which brighten? a smile. Eyes hath He given us, to see the world; ears hath He given us with which to hear lan- guage. He hath given the throat in which dwelleth our speech; He hath given us fingers and noble arms. Graceful feet hath He given us with which we walk; that man knoweth the secret of all these blessings who hath none. Yea, it is the old who know the secret of youth; when they find not their young days though they (gobent forward) seeking them. The great man knoweth not the secret.of poverty; but the poor man knoweth it, to whom poverty is come.

It is the sick man who knoweth the secret of the body, while the healthy man liveth careless ; but the secrets of all are known to the Lord, who abideth ever in every body.

0. Very immeasurable are the makings of the Maker; no teller can tell them. If (all the writers of) the Universe took the seven heavens’ for paper, and filled the seas* of the earth with ink; if they took as many branches as cover ® all the forests in the world, and all the hairs and down (of animals), and all the feathers of birds; if they took the motes of dust and salt where’er they found them, and all the drops in the clouds and all the stars of heaven; and turned them all to pens and wrote, still then they could not write the shoreless ocean of his wondrous works. So hath He manifested all His skill, that even now not one drop of that ocean hath decreased. Think thou of this, and let not pride be in thy heart ; for mad is he, who, in his heart, nourisheth pride.

Very full of holiness is the Lord. What He willeth, for Him that quickly is. So full of holiness can He make a man, that that man, himself, performeth countless holy actions.

l Urdi gloss for purana, wots, the Qur’an. This is quite possible. It will be seen that Mallik Muhammad frequently uses Hindu words as Musalman technical terms. E. G., céla, xx, 4.

2 Lit., are fit for.

8 The seven Heavens, see note to i, 5.

4 The seven seas of Hindu tradition, see ii, 4, The general idea of this verse is taken from the Kahf or Cave Sirah of the Qur’an. Verse l09 runs ‘Say, were the sea ink for the words of my Lord, the sea would surely fail before the words of my Lord fail; aye, though we brought as much ink again.” ?

5 Bana-dhakha@, is equivalent to bana dhakhané-walé, (branches) which cover the forest. The subject of all these objects is sansarw in the fifth line,


ll. Thus, made He oneman withouta blemish, named Muhammad, clori- ous as the full moon. It was his radianey that God first produced, and then for love of him He created the universe. He kindled that light and gave it to the world. The world became clear, and recognized its (true) way. If that bright man had not been, the dark path would not have been visible. The deity (Muhammad) wrote the second place (in heaven) for those who learned his ecreed.! For those who have not taken (refuge in) his name throughout his life, God hath prepared a place inhell. God made him His messenger to the world, and whoever hath taken his name passes safely across both worlds.* है

God will ask of each his virtues and his vices, (when) there will be the (great) casting up of accounts. But he (Muhammad) will humbly bend before him, and will effect the salvation of the world.

l2. Muhammad had four friends, who (followed him) in his place, and the four had spotless namesin both worlds. Ast Bakr Stppie, the Wise, who first truthfully (sidq) brought the faith (into the world). Then ‘Umar, who adorned the title (of Caliph); justice came to the world when he adopted the faith. Then ‘Usman, the learned and wise one, who wrote the Qur’an, as he heard its verses. Fourth came ‘Ati, the mighty lion; when he attacked, both heaven and hell quaked. All four had one mind, and one word, one path and one fellowship. Hach preached the same true word, which became authoritative, and read in both worlds.

The very Qur'an *which God® sent down (to this world), that holy book they read; and they who (have lost their way) in coming (into the world), when they hear it, find the path.®

l Lit., teaching. The Urdu gloss gives &JS, the Musalmin creed.

2 The ihaloka and paraloka of the Hindis. This world and the world to come.

3 Lit., brought.

4 Here again we have purdna used for the Musalman sacred book.

5 Here vidhi, a Hindu technical term.

6 Aba Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa was Muhammad’s dearest friend and father-in-law, and one of his first converts. He enjoyed immense influence with his fellow citizens of Mecca, and earned by his probity the appellation of ‘as-siddig,’ ‘The True.’ He accompanied Muhammad in the Flight, and on his death (632 A.D.) he became the first Caliph. He died 634 A.D.

‘Umar ibn Al-khattab was converted in the 6th year of the call (65 A.D.). His conversion carried with it so much weight that the Musalman traditions relate it with miraculous attendant details. Abi Bakr by his eloquence and address, and ‘Umar by his vigour and promptitude, supplied the want of the practical element in Muhammad’s character. ‘Umar set the example of public (instead of private) prayer, which was fol- lowed by other Muslims. He was the leading spirit of the Emigrants (muhdjira) who had left Mecca at the time of the Flight, and settled in Medina. He procured the nomina- tion of Abi Bakr to be first Caliph, and, as a matter of course, succeeded him as second Caliph in 634. He was murdered at Medina in 644.

‘Usmin ibn ‘Affin was one of Muhammad’s first converts, and married his daughter. He was elected third Caliph on the death of ‘Umar. The Qur’an was compiled in its present form in his reign. He was killed at the age of eighty-two in 655, in the rebellion which arose in consequence of the movement, the ultimate aim of which was the deposi- tion of ‘Usman in favour of ‘Ali.

‘Ali ibn Aba Talib was Muhammad’s cousin, and one of his first converts. He fol- lowed him to Medina three days after the Flight. He succeeded ‘Usman as fourth Caliph in 655, and was murdered in 660 A.D. +

The first compilation of the Qur’’n was undertaken by Zaid ibn Sabit, who was ap-



3. Shér Shah is Sultan of Delhi, who warmeth the whole world! even asthe sun. His kingdom and throne beseem him well; low on the earth have all kings laid their brows before him. By caste a Sir? and with his sword a hero; wise is he and full of all skilfulness. In the nine regions the sun (or all heroes) hath set (or have bent low) before him,® and the seven continents* of the world have all bowed before him. All his kingdom he won with the might of his sword, as did Alexander, the Zi-l-qarnain.’ On his

pointed to the work by the Caliph Abi Bakr at the instigation of ‘Umar. Zaid had been an amanuensis of Muhammad. This redaction had no canonical authority, and discrepancies in the text soon appeared. Accordingly, ‘Usman confided to Zaid and three other Quraishites the preparation of an edition which was to be canonical for all Muslims. This text is the one which is now extant.

l Lit., the four quarters. The use of khanda is uncommon, but it is the only meaning which I can suggest here. An Urdii gloss gives G,b oy.

2 Here, and in the following stanzas there is a series of puns on the word sda, which is not only the name of the Afghan tribe to which Shér Shah belonged, but also means a hero, and the sun.

8 Lit. ‘In the nine regions there was a bending of s#ra,’ where, again, there is a pun on the word saa, ‘hero’ or ‘sun.’ According to the most ancient Hindu Geographers, India was shaped like an eight-petalled lotus. ‘These eight petals, together with the cen- tral division, formed the nine khandas or regions, viz., Paicala (central), Kalinga (8. E.), Avanti (S.), Anarta (S. W.), Sindhu-Sauvira (W.), Harahaura (N. W.), Madra (N.), Kaun- inda (N. E.). The Puranas give a different list of names, viz., Indra (E.), Kaséru (N.), Tamraparna, (? S.), Gabhastimat, Kumarika (Central), Naga, Saumya, Varuna (W.), Gan- dharva. See Cunningham’s Ancient Geography of India, pp. 5 and 66. The Comm. gives Bharata-varsa, Kinnara-varsa, Hari-vara, Kuru-varsa, Hiranmaya-varsa, Ramyaka-varsa, Bhadragva-varsa, Kétumilaka-varsa, and Ilavrta; ef. Visnu-Purana, ii, 2.

4 See I, 5.

5 Zi-l-qarnain, means The Master of Two Horns.’ Musalman tradition varies about this name. According to some, the Zu-l-qarnain was not Alexander the Great, but another saint, who lived at the time of Khwaja Khizr, and who was so called from his having two curls hanging, one from each side of his forehead, or because he reached both sides of the world, or because he was noble by descent from both his parents, or because he went through both the light and dark parts of the world, or because he died when struck on one side of the forehead, and then was restored to life, and again died on being struck on the other side of the forehead, and again came to life.

Beale’s Oriental Biographical Dictionary (Ed. Keene), says ‘Master of Two Horns, a title of Alexander the Great, probably based on coins representing him in the character of Ammon.’ Alexander’s coins show his head adorned with two ram’s horns. They were widely current in the East, and the Muhammadans probably gave him that name after his coins.

The Musalman idea of Alexander the Great is based npon legends contained in the Qur’- an and its commentaries. Thus, Burton, Arabian Nights, night cccclxiv, says, ‘Iskandar (i. e., Alexander) was originally called Marzban (Lord of the Marches), son of Marzabah, and, though descended from Yunan, son of Japhet, the eponymus of the Greeks, was born obscure, the son of an old woman. According to the Persians he was the son of the elder Darab (Darius Codomannus of the Kayanian or second dynasty), by a daughter of Philip of Macedon; and was brought up by his grandfather. When Abraham and Isaac rebuilt the Ka’abah they foregathered with him, and Allah sent him forth against the four quarters of the earth to convert men to the faith of the Friend or to cut their throats; thus he be- came one of the four world-conquerors with Nimrod, Solomon, and Bakht al-Nasr (Nabucho- donosor) ; and he lived down to generations of men. His Wazir was Aristi (the Greek Aris- totle), and he carried a couple of flags, white and black, which made day and night for him and facilitated his conquests.’ The Comm. gives a well-known legend about the title given to him‘in the text. Alexander concealed the fact of his having horns from the pub- lic, and it was known only to his barber. One day, owing to sickness, this barber sent

i38—4] PADUMAWATI, 7

hand is Solomon’s ring,! and, with it, he gave gifts to the world with full hand. Majestic is he, and a mighty lord of the earth; like a pillar he sup- porteth the earth and maintaineth the whole univérse.

Muhammad blessed him and said, Reign thou from age to age. Thou art the Emperor of the World. The world is a beggar at thy door.

l4, I tell of the heroism of this king, Lord of the world, the weight of whose array is greater than the world can bear, When his army full of horsemen advanceth, covering the earth, mountains crash and fly away in powder, night cometh from the clouds of dust which eclipse the sun, so that man and